The Pattern of Severe Malaria in Plateau State of Nigeria: A Five-Year Review of Severe Malaria Case-Based Surveillance Data from 2013 to 2017
Central African Journal of Public Health
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2019, Pages: 52-57
Received: Dec. 30, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 21, 2019;
Published: Feb. 15, 2019
Views 98 Downloads 26
Okokon Ita Ita, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Kenneth Ogar Inaku, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Anthony Achizie Iwuafor, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Ubong Anifiok Udoh, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
There is a decline in the global incidence, morbidity, and mortality of malaria. However, approximately 20% of hospital admissions and 10% of hospital deaths in Nigeria have been attributed to malaria. This secondary data analysis was conducted to examine the pattern severe malaria in Plateau State in the face of declining global malaria infection. Severe malaria-specific Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDRS) records of Plateau State of Nigeria over a five-¬year period were reviewed. A total of 38,467 cases of severe malaria were reported between January 2013 and December 2017. The highest number of cases 14098 (36.65%) was reported in 2016 and the least number of cases 950 (2.47%) were reported in 2014. A total of 362 severe malaria deaths was reported within the same period with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 0.94%. The highest CFR 1.43% was recorded in 2015 while the least CFR 0.00% was recorded in 2014. The 0-28 days age group had the highest CFR (3.13%). The comparative monthly trend of severe malaria cases did not follow any consistent pattern during the 5 years under review. However, as of 2017, the trends of total cases per year and CFRs were on the decline. In conclusion, the overall number of cases and deaths of severe malaria is declining in Plateau State but the CFR among neonates remains high. Therefore, prevention and control efforts should be intensified in Plateau State, in order to achieve malaria elimination in the State.
Okokon Ita Ita,
Kenneth Ogar Inaku,
Anthony Achizie Iwuafor,
Ubong Anifiok Udoh,
The Pattern of Severe Malaria in Plateau State of Nigeria: A Five-Year Review of Severe Malaria Case-Based Surveillance Data from 2013 to 2017, Central African Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 52-57.
White NJ. Malaria. In: CC, Gordon IA, editor. Manson’s Tropical Diseases. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2009. p. 1209–81.
Okwa O, Akinmolayan FI, Carter V, Hurd H. Transmission Dynamics of Malaria in Four Selected Ecological Zones of Nigeria in the Rainy Season. Ann AfricanMedicine [Internet]. 2009; 8 (1): 1–9. Available from: http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?am09001.
Magallón-Tejada A, Machevo S, Cisteró P, Lavstsen T, Aide P, Rubio M, et al. Cytoadhesion to gC1qR through Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 in Severe Malaria. PLOS Pathog [Internet]. 2016 Nov 11; 12 (11): e1006011. Available from: https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006011.
Vigan-Womas I, Guillotte M, Le Scanf C, Igonet S, Petres S, Juillerat A, et al. An in vivo and in vitro model of Plasmodium falciparum rosetting and autoagglutination mediated by varO, a group A var gene encoding a frequent serotype. Infect Immun. 2008; 76 (12): 5565–80.
Autino B, Corbett Y, Castelli F, Taramelli D. Pathogenesis of malaria in tissues and blood. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2012;4(1).
Silva LS, Silva-Filho JL, Caruso-Neves C, Pinheiro AAS. New Concepts in Malaria Pathogenesis: The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System. Front Cell Infect Microbiol [Internet]. 2016;5 (January): 5–10. Available from: http: //journal.frontiersin.org/Article/10.3389/fcimb.2015.00103/abstract
Moncunill G, Mayor A, Jiménez A, Nhabomba A, Puyol L, Manaca MN, et al. Cytokine and Antibody Responses to Plasmodium falciparum in Naïve Individuals during a First Malaria Episode: Effect of Age and Malaria Exposure. PLoS One. 2013; 8 (2).
Cholera R, Brittain NJ, Gillrie MR, Lopera-Mesa TM, Diakite SAS, Arie T, et al. Impaired cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci [Internet]. 2008; 105 (3): 991–6. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0711401105
Aponte JJ, Menendez C, Schellenberg D, Kahigwa E, Mshinda H, Vountasou P, et al. Age interactions in the development of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum and its clinical presentation. PLoS Med. 2007; 4 (7): 1259–67.
Ashley EA, Pyae Phyo A, Woodrow CJ. Malaria. Lancet. 2018; 391 (10130): 1608–21.
World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2017. 2018.
World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data— malaria. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 6]. Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/malaria/en/.
Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health. National Malaria Control Programme. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2018 Dec 6]. Available from: http://nmcp.gov.ng/.
Okeke T, Uzochukwu B, Okafor H. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers’ perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community. Malar J. 2006; 5: 97.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Plateau state, Nigeria. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 6]. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/place/Plateau-state-Nigeria.
National Bureau of Statistics. Federal Republic of Nigeria 2006 Population Census [Internet]. 2006. Available from: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng.
Plateau State Government. Plateau State [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 6]. Available from: https: //www.plateaustate.gov.ng/page/at-a-glance.
Runsewe-Abiodun IT, Ogunfowora OB, Fetuga BM. Neonatal malaria in Nigeria - A 2-year review. BMC Pediatr. 2006; 6: 1–5.
Shear HL, Grinberg L, Gilman J, Fabry ME, Stamatoyannopoulos G, Daniel E, et al. Malaria by a Novel Mechanism by a Novel Mechanism. Med Hyg (Geneve). 2012; 92 (7): 2520–6.
Uneke CJ. Congenital malaria: An overview. Tanzan J Health Res. 2011; 13 (3): 264–80.
Rupa DKM. Clinical Presentation and Management of Neonatal Malaria: A Review. Malar Chemother Control Elimin [Internet]. 2014;03(02). Available from: https://www.omicsonline.com/open-access/clinical-presentation-and-management-of-neonatal-malaria-a-review-2090-2778.1000126.php?aid=37135.
Dawaki S, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Ibrahim J, Atroosh WM, Abdulsalam AM, et al. Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State. Malar J. 2016; 15 (1): 1–14.