Prevalence, Causes and Pattern of Tooth Loss among Elderly People in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Central African Journal of Public Health
Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages: 98-101
Received: Feb. 12, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 12, 2019; Published: Mar. 30, 2019
Views 136      Downloads 27
Braimoh Omoigberai Bashiru, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Alade Grace Oyenashia, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Tooth loss constitutes a condition of public health interest and can be used as a measure of the oral health of a population. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, pattern and causes of tooth loss among the elderly in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study was an observational research design carried out using pensioners 60 years and above. Subjects were selected by systematic random sampling and data was collected by the use of questionnaire and clinical oral examination. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. No case of complete edentulousness was recorded in this study. The prevalence of tooth loss was 43.6%. Although the prevalence was higher in males than in females and older than younger age group, the difference was not significant. The mean tooth loss was 8.9±2.1. Tooth loss was higher in the maxillary anterior segment (14.2%) than the mandibular anterior segment (13.3%) and in the mandibular posterior segments (38.8%) than the maxillary posterior segments (33.7%). These differences were however not significant. Periodontal disease accounted for 50.3% (2435) of the tooth loss, dental caries and trauma accounted for 44.2% (2142) and 5.5% (264) of tooth loss respectively. The prevalence of tooth loss was high among the study population. Periodontal disease and dental caries were the main cause of tooth loss in this group. Therefore, there is need to educate and promote oral health among the populace geared towards improving oral hygiene and change in dietary pattern.
Edentulousness, Elderly, Oral Health, Prevalence, Tooth Loss
To cite this article
Braimoh Omoigberai Bashiru, Alade Grace Oyenashia, Prevalence, Causes and Pattern of Tooth Loss among Elderly People in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, Central African Journal of Public Health. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 98-101. doi: 10.11648/j.cajph.20190502.16
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sen S, Balwani T, Sahu A, Parate N, Gehani A, Deolia S. Tooth loss and associated risk factors among rural population of Wardha District: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2018; 16:11-7.
Petersen PE. The world oral health report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century – the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003; 31:3–24.
Han DH, Khang YH, Lee HJ. Association between adult height and tooth loss in a representative sample of Koreans. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2015; 43:479-88.
Tsai SJ, Lin MS, Chiu WN, Jane SW, Tu LT, Chen MY, et al. Factors associated with having less than 20 natural teeth in rural adults: A cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health 2015; 15:158.
Michele Lolita Y, Ashu Michael A, Hubert N, Florence D, Jacques B. Oral health status of the elderly at Tonga, west region, Cameroon. Int J Dent 2015; 2015:820416.
Akpata E, Otoh E, Enwonwu C, Adeleke O, Joshipura K. Tooth loss, chewing habits, and food choices among older Nigerians in Plateau State: a preliminary study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2011; 39 (5):409-15.
Veiga N, Domingues A, Douglas F, Rios S, Vaz A, Coelho C, et al. The influence of chronic diseases in the oral health of the elderly. J Dent 2016; 2:32-8.
Jaleel BF, Nagarajappa R, Mohapatra AK, Ramesh G. Risk indicators associated with tooth loss among Indian adults. Oral Health Dent Manag 2014; 13:170-8.
Natto ZS, Aladmawy M, Alasqah M, Papas A. Factors contributing to tooth loss among the elderly: Across sectional study. Singapore Dent J 2014; 35:17-22.
Oginni FO. Tooth loss in a sub-urban Nigerian population: causes and pattern of mortality revisited. Int Dent J 2005; 55:17-23.
Adeyemo WL, Oderinu HO, Oluseye SB, Taiwo OA, Akinwande JA. Indications for extraction of permanent teeth in a Nigerian teaching hospital: a 16-year follow-up study. Nig Q J Hosp Med 2008; 18:128-32.
Esan TA, Olusile AO, Ojo MA, Udoye CI, Oziegbe EO, Olasoji HO. Tooth loss amongst Nigerians treated in teaching Hospitals: a national pilot study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2010; 14; 11:17-24.
Esan TA, Olusile AO, Akeredolu PA, Esan AO. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience. BMC Oral Health2004; 4:3.
Taiwo JO, Omokhodion F. Pattern of tooth loss in an elderly population from Ibadan, Nigeria. Gerodontol 2006; 23:117-22.
Folayan MO, Otuyemi OD, Esan TA, Adeleke AA, Adedigba MA. Pattern of dental extraction in children in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005; 6:80-90.
Hamasha AA, Sasa I, Qudah MA. Risk indicators associated with tooth loss in Jordanian adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2000; 28:67-72.
George B, John J, Saravanan S, Arumugham IM. Prevalence of permanent tooth loss among children and adults in a suburban area of Chennai. Indian J Dent Res 2011; 22:364.
Kaimenyi JT, Ndung'u FI, Maina SW, Chindia ML. Oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of Kenyan children aged 9-15 years in a peri-urban and urban school. East Afr Med J 1993; 70:67-70.
Kim H, Lee S, Cho S, Patton LL, Ku Y. Associations between missing teeth with unmet needs and socioeconomic status among south Korean dentate government employees. J Pub Health Dent 2007; 67:174–78.
Perera R, Ekanayake L. Tooth loss in Sri Lankan adults. Int Dent J2011; 61:7-11.
Odusanya SA. Tooth loss among Nigerians: Causes and pattern of mortality. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1987; 16:184-9
Macgregor ID. The pattern of tooth loss in a selected population of Nigerians. Arch Oral Biology 1972; 17:15:73-82.
Saheeb BD, Sede MA. Reasons and pattern of tooth mortality in a Nigerian Urban teaching hospital. Ann Afr Med 2013; 12:110-4
Stabholz A, Babayof I, Mersel A, Mann J. The reasons for tooth loss in geriatric patients attending two Surgical clinics in Jerusalem, Israel. Gerodontol 1997; 14:83-8.
Kay EJ, BlinKhorn AS. The reasons underlying extraction of teeth in Scotland. Br Dent J 1986; 160:287-90.
Agerholm DM, Sidi AD. Reasons given for extraction of permanent teeth by general Dental Practitioners in England and Wales. Br Dent J 1988; 164:345-8.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186