Diarrhea Risk Factors Associated with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Among the Under Five in Kasarani, Nairobi County
Central African Journal of Public Health
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 272-279
Received: Sep. 24, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 16, 2019; Published: Oct. 23, 2019
Views 51      Downloads 17
Authors
Humphrey Mbuti Kimani, School of Public Health, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Daniel Nyagetiria Akunga, School of Public Health, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Stephen Obiero Anyango, Department of Environmental and Biosystems Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Taratisio Ndwiga, School of Public Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Provision of quality water continues to be a challenge in the developing Counties particularly in the informal settlements and Kenya is not an exception. This study assessed diarrhea disease attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among the under five in Kasarani, Nairobi County. The main objective of this study was to establish the association between diarrhea among the under five and Water, Sanitation and hygiene. To achieve this goal Kasarani was categorized into four study environs namely low density high income, Medium density middle income, high density low income and informal settlement low income. Structured questionnaire and hygiene checklist were used as data collection instruments. Association and significant differences between variables were determined using inferential statistics and Chi-square tests. To compare quantitative variables (ANOVA) test was preferred. This study determined that water consumed in Kasarani was a risk for childhood diarrhea (p=0.019). Tap water showed a significantly higher contamination 13.7% than household water container 7.2% for T. Coli Bacteria. The amount of water a household consumed per day was an important risk factor for childhood diarrhea (P=0.001). Overall, Age of a child (P=0.046), water treatment method (P=0.002), method of storage of solid waste P<0.001, quantity and frequencies of water supply (P<0.001) were also found to be the most important risk factors for childhood diarrhea. The study concluded that there was a relationship between childhood diarrhea and water, sanitation and hygiene in Kasarani. The study recommended that Nairobi water and Sewerage Company institute programs that will facilitate adequate and wholesome water supply to HDLI and ISLI residential environs respectively.
Keywords
Diarrhea Diseases, Water Quality and Quantity, Water-borne Diseases, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
To cite this article
Humphrey Mbuti Kimani, Daniel Nyagetiria Akunga, Stephen Obiero Anyango, Taratisio Ndwiga, Diarrhea Risk Factors Associated with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Among the Under Five in Kasarani, Nairobi County, Central African Journal of Public Health. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2019, pp. 272-279. doi: 10.11648/j.cajph.20190506.18
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
WHO (2009). The treatment of Childhood diarrhea. A manual for Physicians and other senior Health Workers. GENEVA: WHO.
[2]
UNICEF/WHO (2008). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, New York: UNICEF/WHO.
[3]
WHO/UNICEF, (2005). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Children and Water global statistics, Switzerland: WHO.
[4]
UNICEF/WHO (2009). Diarrhoea disease. USA; UNICEF/WHO.
[5]
Black, R. E (20000. Diarrhoea disease. Infectious disease epidemiology, theory and practice. London: Aspect publishers.
[6]
Hunter (1997). Waterborne disease, epidemiology and ecology, john willey and sons, USA.
[7]
World Bank (2005). World Bank development indicators. Washington DC; WB.
[8]
Curtis, V.& Cairneross, S. (2003). Effects of washing hands with soap on diarrhea risk in the community: A systematic review, lancet infectious diseases. London: pubmed.
[9]
Ingrid, I. (2008). Diarrhoea diseases. An overview of causes, systems and treatment. New York: Oxford University.
[10]
AMREF. (2011). Integrated School Health. Kenya: AMREF.
[11]
WHO/UNICEF (2006). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Children and water-global statistics (2009). WHO.
[12]
WHO. (2005). Diarrhoea diseases. Geneva: WHO.
[13]
WaterAid, (2008). Water and Sanitation Sep 2009. UK: WaterAid.
[14]
Nyagetiria, A. D. (2009). Estimating burden of diarrhea associated with water, sanitation and hygiene among the under fives in residential environs of Nairobi. Nairobi: Kenyatta University.
[15]
UNICEF. (2008). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Children and water global statistics, Switzerland: UNICEF.
[16]
JICA, (2010). Integrated Solid Waste management of the City of Nairobi. JICA Project. Kenya: Nairobi.
[17]
Kosek (2003). Division of geographic and international medicine. USA: University of Virginia.
[18]
Mulligan, (2005). Water quality interventions to prevent diarrhea cost cost-effectiveness. Geneva, WHO.
[19]
Pruss, (2006). Safewater, better health. Costs and benefits and sustainability of intervention to protect and promote health (1246-1255). Geneva: WHO.
[20]
HMIS, (2010). Health Management Information Systems. Epidemiology and disease control. Nairobi: PhD.
[21]
Gwako. (2010). Grand water abstractions in Kenya 2010. Kenya: Nairobi.
[22]
Feachem RG. (1987). Diarrhoea Morbidity patterns in Central region of Ghana. NCBI, Ghana.
[23]
Tagoe (1995). Risk factors associated with under five in rural Zimbabwe. Harare, Zimbabwe.
[24]
Diame (1990). Risk factors associated with under five diarrhea in Kenya. UON, Kenya.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186