Please enter verification code
Vitamin A Rich Foods Consumed For Dietary Intake and Supplementation Among Children Aged 12 To 59 Months in Gatunga Ward, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya
Central African Journal of Public Health
Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2020, Pages: 73-79
Received: Nov. 15, 2019; Accepted: Dec. 6, 2019; Published: Feb. 21, 2020
Views 530      Downloads 167
Nkingo Christine Kananu, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Judith Waudo, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Eunice Njogu, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Vitamin A food sources intake is one of the dietary interventions that support the achievement of nutrition priority outcomes. Inadequate Vitamin A intake leads to its deficiency which causes depressed immune response, impaired movement of iron, poor growth, night blindness and xerophthalmia which are a major public health concerns. The study objective was to establish Vitamin A rich foods consumed by children aged 12 to 59 months. The target population was 370 caregivers of children aged 12 to 59 months who were clustered and sampled using purposive cluster and random sampling. A cross sectional descriptive study design was used to guide this study. Primary data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and key informant interviews schedules from caregivers and key informants respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20 while qualitative data was organized and analysed thematically. The findings revealed that only 41.8% consumed more than five food groups and indicator of a children likelihood of suffering from Vitamin A deficiency due to limited dietary diversity. It also emerged that only 36 (9%) of the respondents could mention at least one type of foods rich in Vitamin A while only (23.5%) could mention at least one benefit of Vitamin A, an indicator of knowledge on Vitamin A-rich foods and their benefits was scanty. The study recommends that the government and stakeholders need to develop a policy of ensuring caregivers are adequately educated on Vitamin A-rich foods and their benefits. Interventions such as forming self-help groups which will provide platforms of starting of income generating activities such as investing in production of green vegetables, fruits and chicken to diversify on Vitamin A rich Vitamin A-rich foods.
Vitamin A-rich Foods Sources, Food Groups, Dietary Diversity, Consumption of Vitamin A foods, Cross Sectional Descriptive Study Design
To cite this article
Nkingo Christine Kananu, Judith Waudo, Eunice Njogu, Vitamin A Rich Foods Consumed For Dietary Intake and Supplementation Among Children Aged 12 To 59 Months in Gatunga Ward, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya, Central African Journal of Public Health. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 73-79. doi: 10.11648/j.cajph.20200602.14
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Khillan, J. S. (2014). Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells. Nutrients, 6, 1209-1222.
UNICEF. (2012). Improving child nutrition: The achievable imperative for global progress. New York, USA: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
Smith, R. G. (2012). The Vitamin Cure for Eye Disease: How to Prevent and Treat Eye Disease Using Nutrition and Vitamin Supplementation. Laguna Beach, USA: Basic Health Publications.
WHO. (2015). Food Safety: What you should know. Retrieved May 20, 2017, from
Tidy, C. (2015). Vitamin A Deficiency. Retrieved January 14, 2016, from
UNICEF. (2015). Micronutrients. Retrieved February 22, 2016, from
UNICEF. (2007). The state of the world’s children 2008: Child Survival. New York: UNICEF.
Akhtar, S., Ahmed, A., Randhawa, M. A., Atukorala, S., Arlappa, N., Ismail, T., et al. (2013). Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in South Asia: Causes, Outcomes, and Possible Remedies. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 31 (4), 413–423.
Motee, A., & Jeewon, R. (2014). Importance of Exclusive Breast Feeding and Complementary Feeding Among Infants. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science: Nutrition Science Journal, 2 (2), 56-72.
Hazir, T., Begum, K., Arifeen, S., Khan, A. M., Huque, H. M., Kazmi, N., et al. (2011). Measuring coverage in MNCH: a prospective validation study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on measuring correct treatment of childhood pneumonia. Journal. pmed, 10 (5), 1-12.
Chiu, M., & Watson, S. (2015). Xerophthalmia and vitamin A deficiency in an autistic child with a restricted diet. BMJ Case Rep, 10 (1136), 1-3.
Sardesai, V. (2011). Introduction to Clinical Nutrition (3rd ed). Florida, United States: CRC Pres.
Kupka, R., Nielsen, J., Dhillon, C. N., Blankenship, J., Haskell, M. J., & Baker, S. K. (2016). Safety and Mortality Benefits of Delivering Vitamin A Supplementation at 6 Months of Age in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 37 (3), 375-386.
Nair, M. K., Augustine, L. F., & Konapur, A. (2016). Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency. Frontiers in Public Health, 3 (277), 1-14.
Jemberu, Y., Zegeye, M., Singh, P., & Abebe, H. (2017). Consumption of Vitamin A Rich Foods and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-23 Months in Kachabira District, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 7 (1), 1-10.
Bailey, R. L. (2015). The Epidemiology of Global Micronutrient Deficiencies. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2015 (2), 22–33.
GoK. (2011). The Kenya National Micronutrient Survey. Nairobi: Government Printers.
KNBS. (2014). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Nairobi: Kenya Bureau of Statistics.
FANTA. (2009). Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) for Measurement of Household Food Access Indicator Guide. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA).
Barasa, L. (2014, August 13). Meru County government launches fish eating campaign. Retrieved October 12, 2019, from
NDMA. (2017). Drought Early Warning Bulletin. Nairobi: National Drought Management Authority.
Lorch, A. (2005). Vitamin A deficiency: diverse causes, diverse solutions. London: Greenpeace International.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186