Risk Factors Associated with HIV Infection Among Infants Below 24 Months Born to HIV Positive Mothers
International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 54-62
Received: Oct. 13, 2017; Accepted: Oct. 31, 2017; Published: Nov. 30, 2017
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Authors
Gloria Kirungi Kasozi, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Uganda Christian University, Mukono, Uganda
Afayoa Robert, Department of Public Health, International Health Sciences University, Kampala, Uganda
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Abstract
In order to eliminate infant HIV infection from mother to child, evidence based implementation strategies are needed to address the risk factors that are associated with this infection using limited resources and applicable to all stakeholders especially the parents of the infants. This study assessed the infant, maternal and paternal risk factors associated with HIV infection among infants below 24 months born to HIV positive mothers in care. An unmatched nested case control study was conducted at the HIV/ART clinic, Mildmay Uganda in 2012. 370 HIV positive mothers with their biological infants below 24 months who had had a DNA-PCR test done in the last 6 months were enrolled in the study (cases: DNA-PCR positive infants, controls: DNA-PCR negative infants). Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. The risk factors that showed a significant relationship with HIV infection of infants below 24 months born to HIV positive mothers were: Infant factors: Infant and young child feeding option used in the first 8 weeks of life (p <0.001) ART status (p<0.001), Immunization status (p=0.031) and duration of receiving Nevirapine syrup of the infant (p=0.002) significantly increased the risk of infection. Maternal factors: High baseline viral load during pregnancy (p=0.046), Body Mass Index > 30kg/m2 (p=0.008), receipt of ART during pregnancy (p<0.001), receipt of nutrition counseling (p=0.002) and non-disclosure of HIV status to spouse of the mother during pregnancy (p<0.001). Paternal factors: Acceptance to test for HIV (p<0.001), non-disclosure of HIV status to spouse (p<0.001) and receipt of ART (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship with HIV infection of infants who were mixed fed the infant (OR: 4.971, 95%CI: 1.71 - 14.48, p=0.003), receipt of ART (NVP) of the infant (OR: 0.0062, 95%CI:0.002 - 0.019, p<0.001), mother not disclosing of HIV status to spouse (OR:2.736, 95%CI:1.074 - 6.971, p=0.035) and Father not disclosing of HIV status to spouse (OR:4.38, 95%CI:1.764 - 11.235, p=0.002). The results show that mixed feeding of infants and parental non-disclosure of HIV status are key drivers that significantly increase the risk of infant infection while infant prophylactic Niverapine reduces the risk of infection. It is recommended that exclusively breastfeed of infants born to HIV positive women, HIV testing and spousal disclosure of HIV status be promoted among PLHIV.
Keywords
Non-Disclosure, HIV DNA-PCR Test, HIV Infection, Exclusive Breastfeeding, Mixed Feeding, Risk Factors
To cite this article
Gloria Kirungi Kasozi, Afayoa Robert, Risk Factors Associated with HIV Infection Among Infants Below 24 Months Born to HIV Positive Mothers, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2017, pp. 54-62. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20170305.12
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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