Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Among Caregivers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Children in Calabar, Nigeria
International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science
Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 52-56
Received: Nov. 20, 2018; Accepted: Dec. 7, 2018; Published: Jan. 11, 2019
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Sunday Oteikwu Ochigbo, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Chimaeze Torty, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Sidney Oparah, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
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WHO ranks depression as the single largest contributor to global disability which is approximately 7.5% of all years lived with disability in 2015, anxiety disorders are ranked 6th (3.4%). Due to the chronic course of the disease, it imparts negatively on the caregivers who demonstrate high levels of psychological distress and depression, increased rates of physiological illness, personal, financial, family, and social problems. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from July to November 2018 at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. A structured proforma was used to collect the baseline data which included socio-demography, relationship to the child, socioeconomic status etc. The anxiety and depression levels of these individuals were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Sixty-four (64) parents/caregivers were interviewed who were predominantly females 79.7% with F: M ratio of 4:1. Most of the parents/caregivers had moderate grade depression and anxiety scores of 45(70.3%) and 36(56.2%) respectively. The predictors for the presence of depression were female gender, lower average monthly income and HIV status. No statistically significant predictor was identified for anxiety. The study showed that socio-demographic factors and HIV status were predictors of mental outcomes among caregivers of HIV infected children. Depression was the commonest presentation by caregivers. Clinicians should thoroughly and regularly assess mental health problems of caregivers of HIV positive children and utilize multidisciplinary approach to reduce burden on caregivers.
Adherence, ART, Scale, Family, Distress, Socioeconomic
To cite this article
Sunday Oteikwu Ochigbo, Chimaeze Torty, Sidney Oparah, Predictors of Anxiety and Depression Among Caregivers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Children in Calabar, Nigeria, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 52-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20180402.14
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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