Application of the Health Belief Model to HIV Testing and Counselling Among Youth Living in Selected Rural Communities in Ghana
International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science
Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 11-18
Received: Dec. 14, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 5, 2019;
Published: Jan. 29, 2019
Views 289 Downloads 104
Kennedy Nyeseh Ofori, Department of Education Studies, Wesley College of Education, Kumasi, Ghana
Human Immune Virus/Acquired Humane Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a pandemic that has caused devastating effects on both infected and affected persons. However, with the discovery of Anti-Retroviral Therapy, early detection of HIV leads to timely treatment, which significantly leads to prolong life. This study aimed at predicting the HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC) behaviour of youth of selected rural communities in Ghana using the health belief model (HBM). This cross sectional study was conducted on 424 youth using a questionnaire. By applying the multi stage sampling technique, a dominantly rural district was first purposefully selected, and then the communities through simple random sampling, and lastly the individual youth were purposefully selected. Data was processed and analysed using SPSS version 22 software. Findings from the study revealed that, respondents’ perceived susceptibility to HTC, perceived benefits and the level of awareness (cues to action) were high, however respondents perceived barriers to HTC was indifferent. It was also found that an increase in a person’s perceived benefits was likely to affect one’s perceived barriers to participate in HIV Testing and Counselling. This indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize them regarding the benefits of HTC. Stakeholders in health should therefore focus HIV/AIDS educational programmes on the benefits of HIV screening behaviours to the youth.
Kennedy Nyeseh Ofori,
Application of the Health Belief Model to HIV Testing and Counselling Among Youth Living in Selected Rural Communities in Ghana, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 11-18.
Barnett T, Whiteside A. AIDS in the twenty-first century: Disease and globalization. Springer; 2002 Jun 6.210-236.
United Nations Agency for International Development (UNAIDS), Global EpidemicReport on HIV/AID update, Geneva. 2018.
National AIDS/STI Control Programme,. Behavioural surveillance survey. Ghana AIDS Commission, Accra. 2017.
Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC). HIV sentinels survey report and National prevalence. AIDS estimates report. Accra. 2017.
Agyei-Mensah S, Aikins AD. Epidemiological transition and the double burden of disease in Accra, Ghana. Journal of urban health. 2010 Sep 1; 87(5):879-97.
Mayosi BM, Benatar SR. Health and health care in South Africa—20 years after Mandela. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014 Oct 2;371(14):1344-53.
Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, Marston BJ, Govender N, Pappas PG, Chiller TM. Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. 2009 Feb 20; 23 (4), 525-30.
Andoh-Robertson T, Ofori KN. HIV Testing and Counselling among the Youth of Ghana: The case of Tarkwa-Nsuaem and Fanteakwa District. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2018; 5 (9), 199-213.
Kabiri MU. Factors Influencing Uptake of Hiv Testing and Counselling Among the Youth in Kintampo South District (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana)
Christ-Koka E. Factors affecting HIV counselling and testing among students in the Ho Municipality. MSc Dissertation: University of Ghana. 2012. Retrieved 12/04/2016from http://dl,handle.net/12345
Farouq U, Ayiworoh A. An Exploratory Case Study of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma in Rural Ghana Thesis presented to The University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada retrieved on April, 2016 from https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/9691.
Moodi M, Mood MB, Sharifirad GR, Shahnazi H, Sharifzadeh G. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students. J Res Med Sci. 2011;16 (3):316–22.
Rosenstock, Irwin. Historical Origins of the Health Belief Model. New Jersey: Charles B. Slack, Inc. 1974.
Ebadifard FRS, Rahmati F. Effects ofTraining Breast-Cancer Screening on Female University Students' Beliefs [in Persian]. Iran J Obstetrics, Gynecology & Infertility. 2012; 15 (23):10–7.
Teitler-Regev S, Shahrabani S, Benzion U. Factors affecting intention among students be vaccinated against A/H1N1 influenza: to a health belief model approach. Advances in preventive medicine. 2011; 2011.
Macintyre K, Rutenberg N, Brown L, Karim A. Understanding perceptions of HIV risk among adolescents in KwaZulu-Natal. AIDS and Behavior. 2004 Sep 1;8(3):237-50.
Mathingau FA. Factors influencing acceptance of routine HIV Testing and Counseling Among pregnant women in Kibera informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya (masters dissertation, kenyatta university) https://scholar.google.com.
Ajuwon AJ, Olaleye A, Faromoju B, Ladipo O. Sexual behavior and experience of Sexual coercion among secondary school Students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria. BMC public health. 2006 Dec; 6 (1):310.
Crissman HP, Adanu RM, Harlow SD. Women's sexual empowerment and Contraceptive use in Ghana. Studies in family planning. 2012 Sep;43(3):201-12.
Abede A, Mitikie G. Perception of High School Students towards Voluntary HIVCounselling and Testing, using Health Belief Model in Butajira, Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2010, 2 (11).
Hirus BM. (2014). Factors influencing HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) Service utilization among Youth of Hawassa town: a Health Belief Model Approach, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Science and Development, 2 (1), 49-58.
Becker MH. The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior. Journal of Health Education Monographs,1974, 2 (4), 324-508.
Downing-Matibag TM, Geisinger B. Hooking up and Sexual Taking Among College Students: A Health Belief Model Perspective, 2009, SAGE.
Baum K. Adolescents and AIDS. 1997, Retrieved from www.kidsource.com. on15/5/2016.
Rosenstock IM. Why People Use Health Services. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 1966, 44(3), 94–127. Retrieved: April 12, 2017 from http://doi.org/10.2307/3348967.
Kinnear PR, Gra CD. (2004). SPSS mode Sample, Hove, Psychology press. London.
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), (2014). 2010 Ghana Population Census Report. Accra: GSS.