Factors Associated with Agreeing to Early Childbearing Among School Girls of Selected Rural Districts in Zambia
International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science
Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 52-58
Received: Mar. 12, 2019;
Accepted: Apr. 17, 2019;
Published: May 20, 2019
Views 42 Downloads 14
Priscilla Nkonde, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
Cheelo Mweene, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
Patrick Musonda, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child health (CISMAC), Centre for International Health (CIH), University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Follow on us
Background: The Zambia Demographic Health survey conducted in 2014 reported a notable number of adolescent girls 3627(11.7%) who had their first sexual intercourse by age 15 and the Zambia National Health Strategic Plan 2017-2021 highlighted the high adolescent birth rate which stood at 141 per 1000 live births between the years 2013 and 2014. In this paper, we adopted the WHO definition of an Adolescent as any person between the ages of 10 to 19 years. This study aimed at investigating baseline factors that leads to agreeing into early childbearing practices among adolescent girls in selected rural districts of Zambia nested in the RISE cluster randomized trial. In this study early childbearing was taken to mean any pregnancy before the age of 16. Methods: This study is a nested quantitative cross-sectional design. Participants were girls attending grade seven at various schools in 2016. Information on factors that could influence the participants’ view on childbearing were collected at baseline. A complete enumeration of approximately 5000 girls recruited in 12 rural districts of Central and Southern provinces were analysed. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequencies and percentages in tables. To check for association with categorical variables, either Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test was done depending on whether the assumptions for Chi-squared test were satisfied or not. Univariate and Multiple Logistic regression analysis was used to test the association between independent factors and early childbearing. Clustering in the study was accounted for using robust standard errors. Results: The findings showed that more than two-thirds 3189 (73.7%) of the participants had little or no knowledge regarding adolescent sexual and reproductive health services while less than one-third 1137 (26%) had knowledge regarding Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health services. Adolescents with mobile phones were 2.5 times more likely to have children early compared to adolescents without mobile phones. Majority 227 (69%) who agreed to early childbearing were aged 10 to 15 years, whilst the least 99(30.3%) were in the age range of 16 to 20 years. In addition, results revealed that one-year increase in age of an adolescent girl increases agreeing to early childbearing by 30% (OR=1.30, 95% CI (1.01, 1.67), p- value=0.03). Overall, very few factors (mobile phone and age) at baseline were found to be associated with agreeing to early childbearing. Conclusions: Only mobile phone use and age were associated with agreeing to early childbearing.
Early Childbearing, Knowledge, Adolescent, Reproductive Health
To cite this article
Factors Associated with Agreeing to Early Childbearing Among School Girls of Selected Rural Districts in Zambia, International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 52-58.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mkhwanazi N et al. Developing and expanding our ideas about teenage desire and fertility. Agenda 2011; 25 (3): 2-8.
Sandøy, I. F. et al. Effectiveness of a girls’ empowerment programme on early childbearingmarriage and school dropout among adolescent girls in rural Zambia: study protocol for the cluster randomised trial. Trial 2016; 17 (1): 588.
Kirby D et al. Antecedents of adolescent initiation of sex, contraceptive use, and pregnancy. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2002; 26 (6): 473-85.
World Health Organization. Child marriages country profile elinquency. J Sch violence 2007; 6 (3): 89-112.
Amoran OE. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. International journal for equity in health 2012; 11 (1): 1-7.
Central Statistical Office (CSO) [Zambia], Ministry of Health (MOH) [Zambia], ICF International. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14. Rockville, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Health, and ICF International; 2014.
Lloyd CB, Mensch BS et al. Marriage and childbirth as factors in dropping out from school: An analysis of DHS data from sub-Saharan Africa. Popul Stud (Camb) 2008; 62 (1): 1-13.
Walker, J et al. Early Marriage in Africa Trends, Harmful Effects and Interventions Zones of early marriages in Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2012; 16 (2): 231–240.
Gibbons et al. "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1998; 12 (8) 61-64
Hinduja S, Patchin, J et al. Offline consequences of online victimization. school violence and deliquency 2010; 6 (3): 89-112.
Kemp, N. et al. Mobile technology and literacy: Effects across cultures, abilities and the lifespan. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 2011; 27 (1): 1-3.
Carbonell, X., Chamarro, A., Griffiths, M., Oberst, U., Cladellas, R., & Talarn, A. Problematic Internet and cell phone use in Spanish teenagers and young students. Anales de Psicología. 2012; 28 (3): 789-796.
Mitchell, K. J., Becker-Blease, K. A., & Finkelhor, D et al. Inventory of problematic Internet experiences encountered in clinical practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2005; 36 (5):498-309.
Williams, K., & Guerra, N. G et al. Prevalence and predictors of Internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health 2007; 41 (6): 14-21.
Palermo T, Peterman A et al. Are Female Orphans at Risk for Early Marriage, Early Sexual Debut, and Teen Pregnancy? Evidence from Sub‐Saharan Africa. Studies in Family Planning. 2009; 40 (2): 101-12.
Dixon Muellen. R et al. How young is too young? studies in family planning. 2008; 39 (4): 247-62.
Palamuleni M, Adebowale A et al. Patterns of premarital childbearing among unmarried female youths in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from demographic health survey. Scientific Research and Essays. 2014; 9 (10): 421-30.
Marteleto, L., Lam, D., && Ranchod, V et al. Sexual behaviour, pregnancy and schooling among young people in urban South Africa. Studies in family planning. 2008; 39 (4): 351-368.