Investigation of Toxicity and Systemic Exposure of Bioactive Compounds of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) on Wistar Rats
Journal of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 10-17
Received: Apr. 26, 2019;
Accepted: May 28, 2019;
Published: Jun. 24, 2019
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Tembe Fokunang Estella, Department of Pharmaco-Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ndi Sirri Akwen, Department of Pharmaco-Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Njinkio Borgia Nono, Department of Pharmaco-Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Tsabang Nole, Department of Pharmaco-Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ndikum Valentin Nchafor, Department of Pharmacology and Traditional medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ngameni Bathelemy, Department of Pharmacognosy and Therapeutic chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Nguefack Tsague Georges, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Charles Fokunang, Department of Pharmaco-Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ngadjui Bonaventure Tchaleu, Department of Pharmacology and Traditional medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Conventional medications used to treat ulcers are not easily accessible to remote areas, costly and not without side effects, thus causing many patients residing in rural areas to resort to herbal means of treatment. World Health Organization records that at least 80% of the world’s population depends on herbal medicinal products. Herbal therapy is the belief that it will promote healthier living. Azadirachta indica is a tree extensively spread in the Northern parts and sparsely distributed in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, used as a remedy for several pathologies, amongst which we have gastric ulcers which is our area of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute oral toxicity (420 OECD guidelines), systemic exposure and biochemical parameters of toxicity of Azadirachta indica. A. Juss on Wistar rats. Various biochemical parameters such as the: MDA, Catalase, Glutathione, Pepsin, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, Creatinine, XO, and total proteins, were quantified. The acute oral toxicity was of 2000 mg/Kg single dose and compared to a control group which was administered tap water. The administration of 2000 mg/Kg was well tolerated and no death was recorded throughout the fourteen days of observation. No toxic effects were recorded in the organs, implying that at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg, Azadirachta indica was safe. Azadirachta indica aqueous leaf extract contains active metabolites coumarins, catechic tannins, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids and phlobotannins that were bioavailable in systemic circulation. Showed bioavailability at the tested doses (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/Kg), with the presence of phytochemicals being dose dependent. A clean toxicity profile, with just a slight increase in the level of creatinine.
Tembe Fokunang Estella,
Ndi Sirri Akwen,
Njinkio Borgia Nono,
Ndikum Valentin Nchafor,
Nguefack Tsague Georges,
Ngadjui Bonaventure Tchaleu,
Investigation of Toxicity and Systemic Exposure of Bioactive Compounds of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) on Wistar Rats, Journal of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 10-17.
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