Source Tracking and Carcinogenic Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Farmlands from Egi, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Journal of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 61-66
Received: Oct. 20, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 4, 2019;
Published: Jan. 6, 2020
Views 314 Downloads 70
Elechi Owhoeke, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Michael Horsfall Jnr, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Charles Ikenna Osu, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated farmland soil from three oil-producing communities (Oboburu, Obagi, and Ogbogu) in Egi, Niger Delta were assessed for variability, origin and health risks. The result showed that tPAHs of Oboburu were 1344±1685 mg/kg for carcinogenic while BaP (257.3±270.5 mg/kg) had the greatest value. Obagi had 4154±3461 mg/kg for cPAHs with BkF (861.5±543.7 mg/kg) having the greatest amount. Ogbogu was 354.7±360.7 mg/kg for total cPAHs while BgP (104.1±141.8 mg/kg) had highest amount. The dominant PAHs were BbF, BkF, DbA, BaP, IdP and BgP. The principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the PAHs were majorly of pyrogenic and petrogenic origin. The predicted risk due to PAHs in soil for children showed tPAHs was 1.68E-2, with high risk for BaP (9.05E-3), IdP (5.05E-3), BbF (1.63E-3) and BkF (1.04E-3), while the adults estimation showed tPAHs was 1.13E-2 and high risk were for BaP (2.30E-3), IdP (1.08E-3) and BkF (2.57E-4). These values are more than the limit of the US EPA risk management criterion (10-6 to 10-4) where management decisions should be considered. The trend indicated that their presence in the environment makes it unsafe for the dwellers.
Michael Horsfall Jnr,
Charles Ikenna Osu,
Source Tracking and Carcinogenic Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Farmlands from Egi, Niger Delta, Nigeria, Journal of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2019, pp. 61-66.
Singare, P. U. (2015). Studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Mithi River near Mumbai, India: assessment of sources, toxicity risk and biological impact. Material Pollution Bulletin: 101, 232–42.
Inam, E., Owhoeke, E. & Essien, J. (2014). Human carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in freshwater samples from Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni communities in rivers state, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria: 39 (2), 15-22.
Li Z, Ma Z, Van der Kuijp T. J., Yuan, Z. and Huang, L. (2014b). A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science and Total Environment: 468–469, 843–853.
USEPA (1989) Risk assessment guidance for superfund, vol. I: human health evaluation manual (Part A). I: 291. doi: EPA/540/1-89/002. USEPA, Washington, DC.
USEPA (2004) Risk assessment guidance for superfund (RAGS), vol. I: human health evaluation manual (Part E, supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment). USEPA, Washington, DC.
USEPA (2009) Risk assessment guidance for superfund, vol. I: human health evaluation manual (Part F, supplemental guidance for inhalation risk assessment). USEPA, Washington, DC.
Emrah, C. (2012). Health risk assessment of trace metals, PAHs and trihalomethanes in drinking water of cankiri, Turkey. E-Journey of Chemistry: 9 (4), 1976-1991.
Adetunde, O. T., Mills, G. A., Olayinka, K. O., and Alo, B. I. (2014). Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 49, 1661–1671.
Wang, J., Zhang, X., Ling, W., Liu, R., Liu, J., Kang, F. and Gao, Y. (2016). Contamination and health risk assessment of PAHs in soils and crops bin industrial areas of the Yangtze River Delta region, China, Chemosphere: Doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.113.
Barrán-Berdón, L. A., González, G. V., Aboytes, P. G., Rodea-Palomares, I., Carrillo-Chávez, A., Gómez-Ruiz, H. and Cuéllar, V. B. (2012). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from a brick manufacturing location in central mexico, Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambient: 28 (4), 277-288.
Tarafdar, A. and Sinha, A. (2017). Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis, Environmental Management: DOI 10.1007/s00267-017-0920-6.
Ray, S., Khillare, P. S., Agarwal, T. and Shridhar, V. (2008). Assessment of PAHs in soil around the International Airport in Delhi, Indian Journal of Hazardous Material: 156, 9–16.
Khalili, N. R., Scheff, P. A. and Holsen, T. M. (1995). PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions. Atmosphere and Environment; 29, 533–542.
Kong, S., Ding, X., Bai, Z., Han, B., Chen, L., Shi, J. and Li, Z. (2010). A seasonal study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in five typical cities of Liaoning Province, China. Journal of Hazardous Material: 183, 70–80.
Cocarta, M. I., Stoian, A. M. and Badea, A. (2016). Human health risk assessment: a case study involving polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil contamination and human exposure international Journal of Advances in Science, Engineering and Technology: 4 (1), 144-149.
Collins, J F., Brown, J. P., Alexeeff, G. V. and Salmon, A. G. (1998). Potency equivalency factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: 28, 45-54.