Extraction Methods and Functional Properties of Protein from Arthospira platensis for Bioavailability of Algal Proteins
International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 20-25
Received: Aug. 13, 2019; Accepted: Aug. 28, 2019; Published: Sep. 11, 2019
Views 41      Downloads 14
Mahmood Mahali, Department of Chemistry, Education Faculty, Jawzjan University, Sheberghan City, Afghanistan
Sibi G., Department of Biotechnology, Indian Academy Degree College-Autonomous, Bengaluru, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Protein is one of the main nutrients that will be in short supply in the future. Alternative protein sources and production methods are required to fulfil the demand of protein requirements. Proteins from microalgae represent potential raw materials for the generation of protein based food ingredients. Arthospira platensis harbors high protein concentrations and one of the most important factors influencing successful extraction of protein is accessibility of the protein molecules. Process optimization and statistical analysis is necessary to maximize protein extraction. This study attempts to evaluate and compare various methods for their reliability in extracting microalgal proteins. Five different extraction methods namely alkali, enzymatic, thermal, microwave assisted and ultrasonic extraction were performed to obtain protein from A. platensis. Functional properties of the protein isolates were determined at various pH levels. Highest protein yield of 84% was obtained in ultrasound extraction. The lowest solubility of protein was found at pH 5.0 (0.27%) and highest solubility of protein was obtained at pH 9.0 (74.90%). Water holding capacity of protein isolates of S. platensis was in the range of 0.902 – 1.341 gwater/gprotein. The foaming capacity ranged from 19.37 to 41.28%, with the lowest and maximum values obtained at pH 5.0 and 3.0, respectively. Maximum value of foam stability at pH 5.0 was 31.24% and this subsequently decreased when the pH increased. The results revealed that both microwave assisted and ultrasound extraction methods were found suitable to make bioavailability of algal proteins from Arthospira platensis.
Protein Extraction, Arthospira, Microalgae, Microwave Assisted, Ultrasonic
To cite this article
Mahmood Mahali, Sibi G., Extraction Methods and Functional Properties of Protein from Arthospira platensis for Bioavailability of Algal Proteins, International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 20-25. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpc.20190502.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Azam, S., Khan, Z., Ahmad, B., Khan, I., Ali, J. (2014). Production of single cell protein from orange peels using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Global J. Biotechnol. Biochem. 9 (1): 14-18.
Claver, I. P., Zhou, H. (2005). Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted wheat germ by proteases and the effect on the functional properties of resulting protein hydrolysates. J. Food Biochem. 29 (1): 13-26.
Kadam, S. U., Tiwari, B. K., O’Donnell, C. P. (2013). Application of novel extraction technologies for bioactives from marine algae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61: 4667-4675.
Geneva, V., Galutzov, B., Teissie, J. (2003). High yield electroextraction of proteins from yeast by a flow process. Anal. Biochem. 315: 77-84.
Kadam, S. U., Alvarez, C., Tiwari, B. K., O’Donnell, C. P. (2017). Extraction and characterization of protein from irish brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Food Res. Int. 99: 1021-1027.
Setyaningsih, W., Duros, E., Palma, M., Barroso, C. G. (2016). Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of melatonin from red rice (Oryza sativa) grains through a response surface methodology. Applied Acoustics. 103: 129-135.
Joubert, Y., Fleurence, J. (2008). Simultaneous extraction of protein and DNA by an enzymatic treatment of the cell wall of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta). J. Appl. Phycol. 20: 55-61.
Parimi, N. S., Singh, M., Kastner, J. R., Das, K. C., Forsberg, L. S., Azadi, P. (2015). Optimization of protein extraction from Spirulina platensis to generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. Front. Energy Res. 3: 30.
Zhang, R., Chen, J., Zhang, X. (2018). Extraction of intracellular protein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa using a combination of ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques. Bioresour. Technol., 247: 267-272.
Benelhadj, S., Gharsallaoui, A., Degraeve, P., Attia, H., Ghorbel, D. (2016). Effect of pH on the functional properties of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis protein isolate. Food Chem. 194: 1056-1063.
Stone, A. K., Karalash A., Tyler R. T., Warkentin T. D., Nickerson M. T. (2015). Functional attributes of pea protein isolates prepared using different extraction methods and cultivars. Food Res. Int. 76: 31-38.
Ledoux, M., Lamy, F. (1986). Determination of proteins and sulfobetaine with the folinphenol reagent. Anal. Biochem., 157 (1): 28-31.
Achouri, A., Nail, V., Boye, J. I. (2012). Sesame protein isolate: Fractionation, secondary structure and functional properties. Food Res. Int. 46 (1): 360-369.
Shchekoldina, T., Aider, M. (2014). Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making. J. Food Sci. Technol., 51 (10): 2331-2343.
Fekria, A. M., Isam, A. M., Suha, O. A., Elfadil, E. B. (2012). Nutritional and functional characterization of defatted seed cake flour of two Sudanese groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars. Int. Food Res. J., 19 (2): 629-637.
Bora, P. S. (2002). Functional properties of native and succinylated lentil (Lens culinaris) globulins. Food Chem. 77 (2): 171-176.
Ma, M., Ren, Y., Xie, W., Zhou, D., Tang, S., Kuang, M., Du, S. K. (2018). Physicochemical and functional properties of protein isolate obtained from cottonseed meal. Food Chem., 240: 856-862.
Singh, P., Kumar, R., Sabapathy, S. N., Bawa, A. S. (2008). Functional and edible uses of soy proteins products. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 7 (1): 14-28.
Lawal, O. S., Adebowale, K. O., Adebowale, Y. A. (2007). Functional properties of native and chemically modified protein concentrates from bambarra groundnut. Food Res. Int. 40 (8): 1003-1011.
Ulloa, J. A., Rosas-Ulloa, P., Ulloa-Rangel, B. E. (2011). Physicochemical and functional properties of a protein isolate produced from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) meal by ultrafiltration. J. Sci. Food Agri., 91 (3): 572-577.
Jarpa-Parra, M., Bamdad, F., Wang, Y., Tian, Z., Temelli, F., Han, J., Chen, L. (2014). Optimization of lentil protein extraction and the influence of process pH on protein structure and functionality. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 57 (2): 461-469.
Hou, X., Hansen, J. H., Bjerre, A. B. (2015). Integrated bioethanol and protein production from brown seaweed Laminaria digitata. Bioresour. Technol 197: 310-317.
Li, J., Zu, Y. G., Fu, Y. J., Yang, Y. C., Li, S. M., Li, Z. N., Wink, M. (2010). Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of triterpene saponins from defatted residue of yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) kernel and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Innovative Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 11: 637-643.
Pasquet, V., Cherouvrier, J. R., Farhat, F., Thiry, V., Piot, J. M., Berard, J. B, Kaas, R., Serive, B., Patrice, T., Cadoret, J. P., Picot, L., (2011). Study on the microalgal pigments extraction process: Performance of microwave assisted extraction. Proc. Biochem., 46: 59-67.
Maki-Arvela, P., Hachemi, I., Murzin, D. Y., (2014). Comparative study of the extraction methods for recovery of carotenoids from algae: extraction kinetics and effect of different extraction parameters. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 89: 1607-1626.
Kappe, CO. (2004). Controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 43: 6250-6284.
Vinatoru, M. (2001). An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 8: 303-313.
Virot, M., Tomao, V., Le Bourvellec, C., Renard, C. M., Chemat, F. (2010). Towards the industrial production of antioxidants from food processing byproducts with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17 (6): 1066-1074.
Pilli, S., Bhunia, B., Yan, S., LeBlanc, R. J., Tyagi, R. D., Surampalli, R. Y. (2011). Ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge: A review. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 18 (1): 1-18.
Pradal, D., Vauchel, P., Decossin, S., Dhulster, P., Dimitrov, K. (2016). Kinetics of ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from food byproducts: Extraction and energy consumption optimization. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 32: 137-146.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186