Please enter verification code
Analysis and Health Risk Assessment of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Selected Fruit Juice and Soft Drink Brands in Nigeria
International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry
Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2020, Pages: 54-59
Received: Sep. 2, 2020; Accepted: Sep. 18, 2020; Published: Oct. 7, 2020
Views 196      Downloads 174
Asabe Mercy Magomya, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Gary Garbunga Yebpella, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Ucheoma Chidinma Okpaegbe, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Odiba John Oko, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Sunday Bature Gambo, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are chemical preservatives commonly used in fruit juice and soft drinks. In this study, a total of 20 commercial brands of such beverages in Nigeria were analysed for Sodium benzoate and Potassium sorbate using a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. Preliminary validation of the method revealed good accuracy and precision; 94.54 – 97.25% mean recovery was recorded for benzoate and 92.7 – 96.82% for sorbate. % RSD for intraday precision was 1.67% and 2.36% for benzoate and sorbate respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation (LOD, LOQ) were 1.35, 0.87mg/L for sodium benzoate and 4.11, 2.56mg/L for potassium sorbate. The samples analysed all contained sodium benzoate in concentrations ranging from 25.80 to 245.10 while for potassium sorbate, fourteen samples tested positive with concentrations between 1.36 – 158 mg/L. All the obtained concentrations for potassium sorbate were within acceptable limits but for sodium benzoate, seven samples were found with concentrations above permissible limits. Exposure estimation and health risk assessment carried out in this study revealed potential risks from the sodium benzoate content of some samples. The consumers that are prone to these risks are mainly children with body weights ≤ 30kg. Based on these findings, we recommend that the feeding of soft drinks and related beverages to children should generally be done with caution.
Preservatives, Sodium Benzoate, Potassium Sorbate, Soft Drinks, Fruit Juice, Health Risks
To cite this article
Asabe Mercy Magomya, Gary Garbunga Yebpella, Ucheoma Chidinma Okpaegbe, Odiba John Oko, Sunday Bature Gambo, Analysis and Health Risk Assessment of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Selected Fruit Juice and Soft Drink Brands in Nigeria, International Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2020, pp. 54-59. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpc.20200605.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UNESDA Preservatives,
Battey, A. S., Duffy, S. and Schaffner, D. W (2002). “Modeling yeast spoilage in cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages with Saccharomycescerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68 (4): 1901–1906.
WHO (World Health Organization), (2000). Evaluation of Certain Food Additives (Fifty first Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives).
European food Safety Authority (EFSA) Regulation (2017). Regulation 1333/2008. Available at:
AAFCO (2004). "Official Publication": 262).
Carocho, M., Barreiro, M., Morales, P. and Ferreira I. C. F. R. (2014). Adding molecules to Food, Pros and cons: Areview on synthetic and natural additives. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Sci. and food safety 13 (4): 377-399.
Tfouni, S. A. V. and Toledo, C. F. (2002). Determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in Brazilian foods. Food control. 13: 117-123.
Jahed, K. R. (2007). Chemical contaminants in milk and public health concerns: A review. International Journal of Dairy science 2 (2): 104-115.
Wen, Y., Wang, Y. and Feng Y. Q. (2007). A simple and rapid method forsimultaneous determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in food using in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 388: 1779–1787.
Santini, A. O., Pezza, H. R., Filho, J., Sequinel, R. and Pezza, L. (2009). Potentiometric sensor for sorbic acid determination in food products. Food Chemistry 115 (4): 1563-1567.
Lino, C. M. and Pena, A. (2010). Occurrence of caffeine, Saccharin, benzoic acid and sorbic acid in soft drinks and nectars in Portugal and subsequent exposure assessment. Food Chemistry 121 (2): 503-508.
Piper J. D. and Piper, P. W. (2017). Benzoate and Sorbate Salts: a systematic review of the potential hazards of these invaluable preservatives and the expanding spectrum of clinical uses for sodium benzoate. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 16: 868–880.
Afshar, M., Moallem, S. A., Khayatzadeh, J. and Shahsavan, M. (2013). Teratogenic effects of long term consumption of potassium benzoate on eye development in Balb/c fetal mice. Iran J Basic Med Sci 16 (4): 593–8.
Reddy, M. V., Aruna, G., Parameswari, S. A., Banu, B. H. And Reddy, P. J (2015) Estimated daily intake and exposure of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate through food products in school children of Tirupati, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, l 7 (7): 129-133.
Mahboubifar, M., Sobhani, Z., Dehghanzadeh, G. and Katayoun Javidnia, K. (2010). Comparison between UV Spectrophotometer and High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Analysis of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Food Products. Food Anal. Methods 12161-010-9158-0.
Chaleshtoria, F. S., Arianb, A. and Chaleshtoric, R. S. (2018). Assessment of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in some products in Kashan, Iran with estimation of human health risk Food and Chemical Toxicology 120 (2018) 634–638.
European Union, 2012. Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012 concerning the making available on the market and use of biocidal products. Off. J. Eur. Union L. 167, 1–16.
Mischek, D. and Krapfenbauer-Cermak, C. (2012). Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 29 (3): 371-82.
Alif Adham, Z. and Shaharuddin, M. (2014). Nitrate levels in groundwater and health risk assessment in three villages in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan. Health Environ. J. 5, 139–148.
Amirpour, M., Arman, A., Yolmeh, A., Azam, M. A. and Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z. 2015. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran. Food Additives and Contaminants Part B Surveillance 8 (2): 142. 148.
Kusi, J. K. and Acquaah, S. O (2014). Levels of Benzoic Acid in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices in Ghana. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 8: (12) 36-39.
Sultana, A., Islam, R., Islam, M., Shoeb, M and Nahar, N. (2016) Study of Preservatives and Stimulants in Commercial Soft Drinks. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 19 (1): 68-74.
Lakshmi, N. V and Anoop, A. (2019). Study and Quantification of Preservative (E211) In Carbonated Soft Drink Samples. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) 12 (4): 17.
Karunarathne, K. (2019). Levels of Benzoic and Sorbic Acid Preservatives in Commercially Produced Ready to Serve Products in Sri Lanka. Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences 3 (8): 02-07.
Ahmed, M., Shahzadi, S. K., Waseem, R., Shahzad, S. and Ahmad, W. (2013). Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in Pakistani retail foodstuffs. Int. J. Chem. Sci. Res. 3: 1–6.
Khosrokhavar, R., N. Sadeghzadeh, N., Amini, M., Ghazi-Khansari, M., R. Hajiaghaee, and Ejtemaei, M. S (2010). Simultaneous determination of preservatives (Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate) in soft drinks and herbal extracts using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9 (35: 2010, 80-87.
Ogunleye, D. T, Oyeyiola, A. O, Onwordi, C. T, Falana, T. G and Abolade O. M (2017). Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatograhic determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in some soft drinks. Unilag Journal of Medicine, Science and Technology (UJMST) 5 (1): 168-178.
Sneha, S. and Preetha, R. (2015). Determination of sodium benzoate & potassium sorbate contamination in ready to serve products in post market surveillance in Chennai Discovery, 51 (240): 176-183.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186