Effect of Water Salinity on Some Blood Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 17-20
Received: Jan. 14, 2016; Accepted: Feb. 16, 2016; Published: Feb. 26, 2016
Views 3988      Downloads 187
Authors
Hasan A. Al Hilali, Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Mohammed S. Al-Khshali, Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of high salinity on the blood parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which gradually exposed to salt concentrations of 5, 10 and 15g/liter, as well as tap water (control 0.1g/liter). 80 fish were randomly distributed to four salinity treatments with 2 replicates /treatment (10 fish / replicate) at average weight of 15 ± 3 g to study the effect of salinity on the blood parameters, which included packed cells volume(PCV), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb). Results showed an increase in the (PCV) to 36.17, 40.15 to and 45.30% when the salinity increased to 5, 10 and 15g/l respectively, compared with the control treatment (33.14%). Hb reached 13.34, 14.56 and 15.80 mg/100 ml at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15 respectively, compared with the control treatment (12.15 mg/100ml). RBC reached 2.80, 2.93 and 3.1 × 106 cells/mm3 respectively, in comparison with control (0.1 g/l), while the WBC increased to 12.88, 15.23 and 10.55 × 103 cells/mm3 when the salt concentrations were 5, 10 and 15g/l respectively, compared with control (10.44 × 103 cells/mm3).
Keywords
Salinity, Blood Parameters, Cyprinus carpio
To cite this article
Hasan A. Al Hilali, Mohammed S. Al-Khshali, Effect of Water Salinity on Some Blood Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 17-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20160201.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Fazio, A., Marafioti, S., Arfuso, F., Piccione, G., & Faggio, C. (2013). Influence of different salinity on haematological and biochemical parameters of the widely cultured mullet, Mugil cephalus. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 46(4), 211–218.
[2]
Mommsen, T. (1998). Growth and metabolism. In D. Evans, The Physiology of Fishes, Second edititon (p. 65). Boca Raton: CRC Press.
[3]
Al-Faiz N, A, Jabir, A, A, Yesser, A, K.(2009) Variance salinity concentrations effects on survival, growth and feeding of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings Iraqi J. Aquacul. 6 (2), 59–70.
[4]
Al-Najjar, G, A (2009). Quarterly changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the muscles of three types of family cyprinidae in lhoveizeh Marsh and eastern ALhamar (Thesis, University of Basra) P 78.
[5]
Enayati, A., Peyghan, R., Papahn, A. A., & Khadjeh, G. H. (2013). Study on effect of salinity level of water on electrocardiogram and some of blood serum minerals in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Vet Res Forum,4(1), 49–53.
[6]
Blaxhall, B. C., & Daisleey, K. W. (1973). Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. J. Fish Bid, 5, 771-78.
[7]
Natt, M. P., & Herrick, C. A. (1952). Anew blood diluent for counting the erythrocytes and the leucocytes of the chicken. poultry sci.; 31, 735-738.
[8]
SAS. (2004). SAS User’s Guide: Statistics Version 6th ed., SAS Institute Inc.
[9]
Martinez-Alvarez, R. M., Hidalgo, M. C., Domezain, A., Morales, A. E., Garcia – Gallego, M., & Sanz, A. (2002). Physiological changes of Sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) caused by increasing environmental salinity. J. Exp. Biol 202, 3699-3706.
[10]
Bani, A., & Haghi Vayghan, A. (2009 ). Temporal variation in Haenatological and Biochemical Indices of the Caspian Kutum RutilusFrisii Kutum. Ichthyological Society of Japan, 126-133.
[11]
Schutt, D. A., Lehmann, J., Goerlich, R., & Hamers, R. (1997). Haematology of swordtail Xiphophorous helleri. I: blood parameters and light microscopy of blood cells. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 13(2): 83-89.
[12]
McCormick, S. D. (2001). Endocrine control of osmoregulation in fish. American Zoologist 41, 781–794.
[13]
Schreck, C. B. (1990). Physiological behavioral and performance indicators of stress Adams S M biological Indicators of stress. Bethesda USA: American Fisheries Society.
[14]
Akinrotimi, O. A., Gabriel, U. U., Anyanwu, P. E., & Anyanwu, A. O. (2007). Influence of sex, acclimation methods and period on haematology of Sarotherodon melanotheron. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(3), 348-352.
[15]
Milligan, C. L., & wood, C. M. (1982). Distrbances in hematology, fluid volume distribution and circulatory function associated with low environmental ph in the rainbow trout salmo gairdneri. J. EXP. Biol. 99, 397-415.
[16]
Assem, H. (1981). Problem of osmomineral regulation in euryhaline teleost, sartherodon mossambicus. karlsruhe Germ: Ph. D. thesis. univ.
[17]
Brown, J. A., Moore, W. M., & Quabius, E. S. (2001). Physiological effects of saline waters on zander. J. Fish Biol., 59: 1544–1555.
[18]
Hafez amini, P., & Oryan, S. H. (2002). Effect of NaCl stress on Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Iranian Fisheries Jornal, 3, 13-22.
[19]
Houston, A. H., & Rupert, R. (1997). Immidiate response of hemoglobin system of gold fish(Carassius auratus) to temperature change. Can. J. of Zoology, 54, 1731-174.
[20]
Chen, G. R., Sun, L. T., Lee, Y. H., & Chang, C. F. (1995). Characteristics of blood in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to low temperature. J. of Applied Aquaculture, 5(3), 21-31.
[21]
Al-khshali, M. S. (2011), Effect of different salt concentrations on some physiological and nutritional aspects of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and gold fish Carassius auratus, University of Baghdad, Ph.D Thesis p. 120.
[22]
Salman, N. A. (1997). Osmoregulatory functions in Bunni Barbus sharpeyi in response to short-term exposure to salt water. Bas. J. Sci., 15(1), 7-14.
[23]
Eddy, F. (1982). Osmotic and ionic regulation in captive fish with. Comp.Biochem.Physiol., 73B.(1)125-141.
[24]
Sultan, F, A. (2007) Effect of Salinity Acclimation on some Physiological an Nutritional aspects in Acanthopagrus latus (Houttyn, 1782) Juveniles. University of Basrah, ph.D thesis., P162.
[25]
Plaut, I. (1998). Comparison of salinity tolerance and osmoregulation in two closely related species of blennies from different habitats. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 19, 181-188.
[26]
Woo, N. Y., & Chung, K. (1995). Tolerance of Pomacanthus imperator to hypo-osmotic salinities: changes in body composition and hepatic enzyme activities. J. Fish Biol., 47, 70-81.
[27]
Talbot, C. (1992). Laboratory method in fish feeding and nutritional studies. In P. Tyler, & P. Calow, Fish energetics New perspectives (pp. 125-154). London: Croom Helm.
[28]
Morgan, J. D., & Iwama, G. K. (1991). Effects of salinity on growth, metabolism, and ion regulation in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can. J. Fish. Aqua. Sci., 48 (11), 2083-2094.
[29]
Ahmed, S. M., Al-Dubiakel, A. Y., & Mohamed, F. A. (2004). Changes in alkaline phosphatase activity in the intestine of (Liza abu) Juveniles during salinity acclimation. Iraq. J. Aqua., 11, 17-27.
[30]
Gomes, L. C., King, E. J., & Kebus, M. J. (2003). Effect of Fish density during transportation on stress and mortality of Juvenile tambaqui Colossima macroponnum. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 34, 76-84.
[31]
Eckert, S. E., Yadal, T., Stephand, K. L., Steston, M. H., Hirano, T., & Grau, E. G. (2001). otmonal Control of osmo Regulation in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Comp. Endocrinol.,: 65: 201-234.
[32]
Yavuzcan-Yildiz, H., & Kirkavgaç-Uzbilek, M. (2001). The evaluation of secondary stress response of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. 1844) after exposing to the Saline water. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 25(4), 287-290.
[33]
Akinrotimi, O. A., Agokei, E. O., & Aranyo, A. A. (2012). Changes in Blood Parameters of Tilapia Guineensis Exposed to Different Salinity Levels. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, 1(2), online.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186