Yield and Quality of Intercropped Sunflower with Soybean Under Different Sunflower Plant Spacings and Slow – Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Sandy Soil
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 32-43
Received: Feb. 16, 2016;
Accepted: Mar. 29, 2016;
Published: May 17, 2016
Views 4734 Downloads 217
Sherif Ibrahim Abdel-Wahab, Crop Intensification Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Amal Mahmoud El Manzlawy, Seed Technology Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
A two – year field trial was conducted in El-Boustan region, South El-Tahrir Province, El-Behira Governorate, Egypt to decrease mineral nitrogen (N) inputs of sunflower and increase yield and quality of the intercrops to achieve farmer's benefit under sandy soil conditions. A split-plot design with three replicates was used. Quality of sunflower and soybean seeds was tested in the laboratories of Seed Technology Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center. For soybean crop, average yield of soybean with sunflower was greater by intercropping soybean with sunflower that spaced at 40 cm in the same ridge. Slow – release N fertilizer rates of sunflower did not affect all the studied soybean traits. Also, soybean yield and its attributes were not affected by the interaction between sunflower plant spacing and slow – release N fertilizer rates of sunflower. Seed oil content of soybean was increased by increasing sunflower plant spacing from 20 to 40 cm, meanwhile quality of soybean seeds was not affected by slow – release N fertilizer rates of sunflower or the interaction between sunflower plant spacing and slow – release N fertilizer rates of sunflower. For sunflower crop, intercropping soybean with sunflower that spaced at 20 cm had the highest seed and oil yields per ha compared to the others. All the studied sunflower traits were increased by increasing N fertilizer rates of sunflower from 71.4 to 142.8 kg N/ha except number of leaves per plant. The interaction between sunflower plant spacing and slow – release N fertilizer rates of sunflower affected significantly all the studied sunflower traits except number of leaves per plant. Quality of sunflower seeds was not affected significantly by sunflower plant spacing but it was increased by increasing N fertilizer rates of sunflower from 71.4 to 142.8 kg N/ha. The interaction between sunflower plant spacing and slow – release N fertilizer rates of sunflower did not affect quality of sunflower seeds. Land equivalent ratio values for intercrops were much greater than 1.00 indicating less land requirements of intercropping systems than sole sunflower. Farmer's benefit was achieved by intercropping soybean with sunflower plants that spaced at 20 cm between hills (50% soybean + 100% sunflower) and received 75% of the recommended mineral N fertilizer rate of sunflower under sandy soil conditions.
Sherif Ibrahim Abdel-Wahab,
Amal Mahmoud El Manzlawy,
Yield and Quality of Intercropped Sunflower with Soybean Under Different Sunflower Plant Spacings and Slow – Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates in Sandy Soil, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2016, pp. 32-43.
Ahmad R, Hussain N, Mahmood T and Amjad M. 1992. Growth and yield performance of some sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids planted in spring season. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 29 (3): 288 – 291.
Demir AO, Goksoy AT, Buyukcangaz H, Turan ZM and Koksal ES. 2006. Deficit irrigation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a sub-humid climate. Irrigation Sci., 24: 279 – 289.
FAO. 2010. Statistical Year Book, World food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
FAO. 2013. Statistical Year Book, World food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Vandermeer J. 1989. The Ecology of Intercropping. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. 254p.
Chowdhury MK and Rosario EL. 1992. Utilization efficiency of applied nitrogen as relayed to yield advantage in maize/mungbean intercropping. Field Crops Res., 30: 41 – 51.
Calviño P and Monzon JP. 2009. Farming systems of Argentina: Yield constrains and risk management. In: Sadras V and Calderini D, editors, Crop physiology. Applications for genetic improvement and agronomy. Academic Press, Amsterdam. p. 55 – 70.
Andrade JF, Cerrudo A, Rizzalli RH and Monzon JP. 2012. Sunflower–soybean intercrop productivity under different water conditions and sowing managements. Agron. J., 104 (4): 1049 – 1055.
Coll L, Cerrudo A, Rizzalli RH, Monzon JP and Andrade FH. 2012. Capture and use of water and radiation in summer intercrops in the southeast Pampas of Argentina. Field Crops Res.,134: 105 – 113.
Sûzer S and Atakisi I. 1993. Yield components of sunflower hybrids of different height. HELA,16 (18): 35 – 40.
Zarea MJ, Ghalavand A and Daneshian J. 2005. Effect of planting patterns of sunflower on yield and extinction coefficient. Agron. Sustain. Dev., 25: 513–518.
Akunda EM. 2001. Inter cropping and population density effects on yield component, seed quality and photosynthesis of sorghum and soybean. J. Food Techno. in Africa, 6 (3): 96 – 103.
Abdel-Galil AM, Abdel-Wahab ShI and Abdel-Wahab TI. 2014b. Compatibility of some maize and soybean varieties for intercropping under sandy soil conditions. Proc. 1st Conf. of Int. Soybean Res., Indore, 22 – 24 February, India.
Scheiner JD, Gutie´rrez-Boem FH and Lavado RS. 2002. Sunflower nitrogen requirement and 15N fertilizer recovery in Western Pampas, Argentina. Eur. J. Agron., 17: 73–79.
Ali A and Ullah S. 2012. Effect of nitrogen on achene protein, oil, fatty acid profile, and yield of sunflower hybrids. Chilean J. Agric. Res., 72 (4): 564 – 567.
Nasim W, Ahmad A, Bano A, Olatinwo R, Usman M, Khaliq T, Wajid A, Hammad HM, Mubeen M and Hussain M. 2012. Effect of nitrogen on yield and oil quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under sub humid conditions of Pakistan. American J. Plant Sci., 3: 243 – 251.
Chapman HD and Pratt PE. 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Water. Division Agric. Sci., California Univ., U.S.A.
Clipson, NJW, Edwards SJ, Hall JF, Leach CK, Rayns FW and Weston GD. 1994. Crop Productivity. Published on Behalf of: Open Univ. and Univ. Greenwish (Formerly Thames Polytechnic), Avery Hill Road, Eltham, London SE92HB, 5 p.
A.O.A.C. 2000. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists Official Methods of Analysis. 15th A. O. A. C., Washington, USA.
Sadasivam S and Manickam A. 1997. Biochemical Methods. 2nd edn. New age international (p) Ltd. Publisher, New Delhi, 5 – 207.
Vogel AJ. 1975. A Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry. English Language Book Society And Longman Group Ltd. London, 3th ed., pp. 969 – 971.
Farag RS, Hallabo SAS, Hewedi FM and Basyony AE. 1981. Chemical evaluation of rape seed. Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel, 88 (10): 391 – 397.
Mead R and Willey RW. 1980. The concept of a "land equivalent ratio" and advantages in yields from intercropping. Experimental Agric., 16: 217 – 28.
Bulletin of Statistical Cost Production and Net Return. 2014. Summer and Nili Field Crops and Vegetables and Fruit, Agriculture Statistics and Economic Sector, Ministry of Egyptian Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Part (2), August 2014.
Freed RD. 1991. MSTATC Microcomputer Statistical Program. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
Gomez KA and Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed., John Willey and Sons, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Chang JH. 1974. Radiation balance. Climatic and Agriculture. An ecological survey, pp. 4 – 22. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Gadallah RA, Badr MMA and Abdel-Galil AM. 2006. Effect of intercropping patterns and plant distribution of sunflower with soybean on growth, yield and yield components of soybean and sunflower. Minufiya J. Agric. Res., 31 (4): 915 – 938.
Metwally IO, Ibrahim EM and Abdel-Galil AM. 2008. Response of some intercropping systems of soybean with sunflower to organic and mineral fertilization. Proc. 2nd Field Crops Conf., 14 – 16 October, FCRI, ARC, pp. 419 – 433.
Metwally AA, Shafik MM, El-Habbak KE and Abdel-Wahab ShI. 2012. Yield and soybean characters under some intercropping patterns with corn. Soybean Res., 10: 24 – 42.
Abdel-Galil AM, Abdel-Wahab TI and Abdel-Wahab ShI. 2014a. Productivity of four soybean varieties as affected by intercropping and corn planting geometry. Soybean Res., 12 (1): 36 – 58.
Sûzer S. 2010. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids. HELIA, 33 (53): 207 – 214.
Ahmed KhA. 1993. Evaluation of efficiency of some N-slow- release fertilizers under different rates of phosphatic fertilizers. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Moshtohour, Benha Branch, Zagazig Univ., Egypt.
Bungard RA, Wingler A, Morton JD and Andrews M. 1999. Ammonium can stimulate nitrate and nitrite reductase in the absence of nitrate in Clematis vitalba . Plant Cell Env., 22: 859–866.
Al-Thabet SS. 2006. Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen levels on growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) J. King Saud Univ., Agric. Sci., 19 (1): 1-11, Riyadh.
Ibrahim ME, EL-Ghany HMA and Gaafar NA. 2006. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and its application time on growth and yield of two sunflower varieties. Bulletin of the National Res. Center (Cairo). 31: 3, 233 – 243.
Fisher NM. 1977. Studies in mixed cropping. Exp. Agric., 13: 169 – 177.
Echarte L, Maggiora AD, Cerrudo D, Gonzales VH, Abbate P, Cerrudo A, Sadras VO and Calviño P. 2011. Yield response to plant density of maize and sunflower intercropped with soybean. Field Crops Res., 121: 423 – 429.
Osiru DSO. 1982. Intercropping: A review of possible advantages. In Proc. the Indian Statistical Inst. Golden Jubilee Int. Conf. Frontiers of Res. Agric. (S.K. Roy ed.), pp. 304 –320. Calcutta, September 27 – October 1, 1982.