Selenium in Animal Nutrition: Deficiencies in Soils and Forages, Requirements, Supplementation and Toxicity
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 112-125
Received: Oct. 27, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 11, 2016; Published: Dec. 27, 2016
Views 4321      Downloads 180
Authors
Uttam Saha, Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension, Athens, Georgia, USA
Abioye Fayiga, Freelancer, Ibadan, Nigeria
Dennis Hancock, Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
Leticia Sonon, Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension, Athens, Georgia, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Selenium (Se), an essential nutrient for animals and humans, occurs as selenoproteins in enzymes. It is very important in animal nutrition because it functions as an anti-oxidant assisted by vitamin E. Se deficiency is a major problem which can be reduced or prevented by supplementation with inorganic or organic sources of Se. However, excessive supplementation and consumption of Se accumulating plants may lead to Se toxicity and animal poisoning. Minimal lethal dose for animals range between 1.5 to 8 mg kg-1 Se live body weight and maximum tolerable concentration of Se in forages is 5 mg kg-1. Se deficiency in animals also depends greatly on Se content of forages and soils. Se deficient soils contain less than 0.6 mg kg-1 and can be fertilized to increase Se content of forages or pastures for animals. Forages are classified as adequate, marginally deficient and deficient in Se and contain 0.2, 0.1-0.199 and <0.1 mg kg-1Se respectively. Silages can also be fortified with selenium to meet the requirements for Se in animals. The requirements of Se for animals need to be met to provide adequate animal and human nutrition.
Keywords
Selenium, Forages, Selenium Supplementation, Selenium Deficiency, Anti-oxidant, Selenium Toxicity
To cite this article
Uttam Saha, Abioye Fayiga, Dennis Hancock, Leticia Sonon, Selenium in Animal Nutrition: Deficiencies in Soils and Forages, Requirements, Supplementation and Toxicity, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2016, pp. 112-125. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20160206.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Alexander, J. (2015). Selenium, In Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler and Monica Nordberg (Eds). Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Fourth Edition), Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1175-1208, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59453-2.00052-4.
[2]
Beck, M. A. (2007). Selenium and Vitamin E Status: Impact on Viral Pathogenicity. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 1338-1340.
[3]
Behne, D., & Kyriakopulos, A. (2001). Mammalian selenium containing proteins. Annual Review of Nutrition, 21, 453-473.
[4]
Buck, W. B., & Osweiler, G. D. (1976). Selenium. In: W. B. Buck, G. D. Osweiler, and G. A. van Gelder (eds.), Clinical and Diagnostic Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Edition. Kendall Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA. pp 345-354.
[5]
Burk, R. F. (1990). Protection against free radical injury by selenoenzymes. Pharmacology and Therapy, 45, 383-385.
[6]
Campbell, B. T., Maas, J., Wober, B. W., Hedstrom, O. R., & Norman, B. B. (1990). Safety and efficacy of two sustained-release intra-reticular selenium supplements and the associated placenta and colostrums transfer of selenium in beef cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 51, 813-817.
[7]
Cao, J., Guo, F., Zhang, L., Dong, B., Gong, L., Cao, J., Guo, F., Zhang, L., Dong, B., Gong, L. (2014). Effects of dietary Selenomethionine supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, plasma selenium concentration, and immune function in weaning pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 5: 46, doi: 10.1186/2049-1891-5-46.
[8]
Cary, E. E., Wieczorek, G. A., & Allaway, W. H. (1967). Reactions of selenite-selenium added to soils that produce low-selenium forages. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 31, 21-26.
[9]
CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology), (1994). Risks and Benefits of Selenium in Agriculture. Issue Paper No. 3. Supplement, 35pp. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, IA.
[10]
Chamheidar, H., & Parvanak, K. (2014). Investigation of selenium fertilizer different rates on uptake of selenium in alfalfa plant. Walia Journal, 30, 1-3.
[11]
Chen, J., Han, J. H., Guan, W. T., Chen, F., Wang, C. X., Zhang, Y. Z., Lv, Y. T., & Lin, G. (2016). Selenium and vitamin E in sow diets: I. Effect on antioxidant status and reproductive performance in multiparous sows, Animal Feed Science Technology, 221, 111-123, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.08.022.
[12]
Diehl, J. S., Mahan, D. C., & Moxon, A. L. (1975). Effects of single intramuscular injections of selenium at various levels to young swine. Journal of Animal Science, 40, 844-850.
[13]
Edens, F. W., Read-Snyder, J., & Smoody, R. (2008). Selenium modifies avian reovirus pathogenicity related to malabsorption syndrome. In: P. F. Surai and J. A. Taylor-Pickard (eds.) Current advances in selenium research and applications, pp.133-172. The Netherlands. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
[14]
Edmondson, A. J., Norman, B. B., & Surther, D. (1993). Survey of state veterinarians and state veterinary diagnostic laboratories for selenium deficiency and toxicosis in animals. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association, 202, 865-872.
[15]
Eisenberg, S. (2007). Relative stability of selenites and selenates in feed premixes as a function of water activity. Journal of Association of Analytical Communities International, 90, 349-353.
[16]
Ewan, R. C., Wastell, M. E., Bicknell, E. J., & Speer, V. C. (1969). Performance and deficiency symptoms of young pigs fed diets low in vitamin E and selenium. Journal of Animal Science, 29, 912-915.
[17]
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). (1997). Food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals; selenium. Federal Register. (August 25) 62, 44892-44894.
[18]
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). (2004). Title 21. Food and Drugs: Food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals. Available online at http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/04nov20031500/edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2001/aprqtr/pdf/21cfr573.920.pdf Accessed April 10, 2009.
[19]
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). (2005). CVM update, March 8, 2005. FDA permits the use of selenium yeast in sheep and goat feed. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/cvm/CVM_Updates/SEsheep.htm Accessed April 10, 2009.
[20]
Federal Register, (2002). Food additive permitted in feed and drinking water: Selenium yeast. Federal Register, 67(137), 46850-46851.
[21]
Federal Register, (2000). Food additive permitted in feed and drinking water: Selenium yeast. Federal Register, 65(109), 35823-35824.
[22]
Fordyce, F. (2013). Selenium Deficiency and Toxicity in the Environment. O. Selinus, B. Alloway, J. Centeno, R. Finkelman, R. Fuge, U. Lindh, P. Smedley (Eds.), Essentials of Medical Geology, Elsevier, London, pp. 373–415.
[23]
Gant, R. G., Sanchez, W., & Kincaid, R. L. (1998). Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 1637-1642.
[24]
Gill, W., & Rich, H. B. (1985). Selenium status in forages. Animal Nutrition and Health, 1985, 26-28.
[25]
Grace, N. (1994). Managing trace element deficiencies. New Zealand Pastoral Agriculture Research Institute Ltd., Palmerston North, New Zealand. 70pp.
[26]
Groce, A. W., Miller, E. R., Ullrey, D. R., Ku, P. K., Keahey, K. K., & Ellis, D. J. (1973). Selenium requirements in corn-soy diets for growing-finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science, 37, 948-956.
[27]
Gupta, U. C., & MacLeod, J. A. (1994). Effect of various sources of selenium fertilization on the selenium concentration of feed crops. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 74, 285-290.
[28]
Gutzwiller, A. (1993). The effect of a diet containing cyanogenetic glycosides on the selenium status and the thyroid function of sheep, Animal Production, 57, 415-419.
[29]
Hale, C., & Olsen, K. C. 2001. Mineral supplements for beef cattle. Beef Feeding, University Outreach and Extension. Available online at: http://extension.missouri.edu/explorepdf/agguides/ansci/g02081.pdf (Accessed November/30/2009).
[30]
Hall, J. A., Bobe, G., Hunter, J. K., Vorachek, W. R., Stewart, W. C., Vanegas, J. A., Estill, C. T., Mosher, W. D., & Pirelli, G. J. (2013). Effect of Feeding Selenium-Fertilized Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Weaned Beef Calves. PLoS ONE 8: e58188. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058188.
[31]
Handa, N., Bhardwaj, R., Kaur, H., Kapoor, D., Rattan, A., Kaur, S., Thukral, A., Kaur, S., Arora, S., & Kapoor, N. (2016). Selenium: An Antioxidative Protectant in Plants Under Stress, In Parvaiz Ahmad Ed., Plant Metal Interaction, Elsevier, pp 179-207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803158-2.00007-2.
[32]
Harada, I., Shinohara, I., & Sato, S. (1989). The absorption characteristics of selenious acid applied to corn (Zea mays L.). Journal of Rakuno Gakuen University 14, 49-55.
[33]
Harrison, J. H., & Conard, H. R. (1984). Effect of calcium on selenium absorption by nonlactating dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science, 67, 1860-1864.
[34]
Hartman, F., & van Ryssen, J. B. (1997). Metabolism of selenium and copper in sheep with and without bicarbonate supplementation. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 128, 357-364.
[35]
Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M. A., & Fujita, M. (2010). Selenium in higher plants: Physiological role, antioxidant metabolism and abiotic stress tolerance. Journal of Plant Science, 5, 354-375.
[36]
Hefnawy, A., & Tórtora-Pérez, J. L. (2010). The importance of selenium and the effects of its deficiency in animal health, Small Ruminant Research, 89, 185-192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.12.042.
[37]
Hidiroglou, M., Proulx, J., & Jolette, J. (1985). Intraruminal selenium pellet for control of nutritional muscular dystrophy in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 68, 57-66.
[38]
Hintz, H. F, & Hogue, D. E. (1964). Effect of selenium, sulphur and sulphur amino acids on nutritional muscular dystrophy in the lamb. Journal of Nutrition, 82, 495-498.
[39]
Hoekstra, W. G. (1974). Biochemical role of selenium. In W. G. Hoekstra, J. W. Suttie, H. E. Ganther and W. Mertz (Eds.), Trace element metabolism in animals, No. 2. pp 61-77. University Park Press, Baltimore.
[40]
Hornsby, P. J., Pearson, D. W., Autor, A. P., Aldern, K. A., & Harris, S. E. (1985). Selenium deficiency in cultured adrenocortical cells: Restoration of glutathione peroxidase and resistance to hydroperoxides on addition of selenium. Journal of Cell Physiology, 123, 33-38.
[41]
Ihnat, M. (1989). Plants and agricultural materials. In: Ihnat, M. (Ed.), Occurrence and Distribution of Selenium. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 33–107.
[42]
Ivancic, J., & Weiss, W. P. (2001). Effect of dietary sulphur and selenium concentrations on selenium balance of lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 225-232.
[43]
Jansen, E., Viezeliene, D., Beekhof, P., Gremmer, E., Rodovicius, H., Sadauskiene, I., & Ivanov, L. (2013). Biomarkers of Selenium Toxicity after Sub-Acute Exposure in Mice. Journal of Molecular Biomarkers and Diagnosis, 4: 150. doi: 10.4172/2155-9929.1000150.
[44]
Judson, G. J., Elles, N. S., Kempe, B. R., & Shallow, M. (1991). Long-acting selenium treatments for sheep. Australia Veterinary Journal, 68, 263-265.
[45]
Kachuee, R., Moeini, M., & Souri, M. (2013). Effects of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation during late pregnancy on colostrum and serum Se status, performance and passive immunity in Merghoz goats. Animal Production Science, 54, 1016-1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN13150.
[46]
Kelly, M. P., & Power, R. F. (1995). Fractionation and identification of the major selenium compounds in selenized yeast. Journal of Dairy Science, 78 (Suppl. 1): 237.
[47]
Khan, A. A., Lovejoy, D., Sharma, A. K., Sharma, R. M., Prior, M. G., Lillie, L. E. (1987). Effects of high dietary sulfur on enzyme activities, selenium concentrations and body weights of cattle. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 51, 174–180.
[48]
Knight, A. P. (1995). Plant poisoning of horses. In L. D. Lewis (ed.), Equine clinical nutrition. Feeding and care. 1st ed., Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. pp. 447-502.
[49]
Koenig, K. M., Buckley, W. T., & Shelford, J. A. (1991). True absorption of selenium in dairy cows: Stable isotope tracer methodology and effect of dietary copper. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 71, 175–183.
[50]
Köhrle, J. (2000). The deiodinase family: Selenoenzymes regulating thyroid hormone availability and action. Cellular and Molecular Life Science, 57, 1853-1863.
[51]
Koivistoinen, P., & Huttunen, J. K. (1986). Selenium in food and nutrition in Finland. An overview on research and action. Annual Clinical Research, 18, 13-17.
[52]
Koyuncu, M., & Yerlikaya, H. (2007). Effect of selenium-vitamin E injections of ewes on reproduction and growth of their lambs. South African Journal of Animal Science, 37, 233-236.
[53]
Kuchel, R. E., & Buckley, R. A. (1969). The provision of Se to sheep by means of heavy pellets. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 201, 1009–1107.
[54]
Lakin, H. W. (1961). Geochemistry of selenium in relation to agriculture. In: Selenium in Agriculture. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook 200. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[55]
Lakin, H. W. (1972). Selenium accumulation in soils and its absorption by plants and animals. Geology Society of America Bulletin, 83, 181-189.
[56]
Lavender, O. A., & Bagman, C. A. (1966). Selenium metabolism: VI. Effect of arsenic on the excretion of selenium in the bile. Toxicology Applications in Pharmacology 9: 106-115.
[57]
Leeson, S., & Summers, J. D. (1991). Commercial Poultry Nutrition. University Books, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
[58]
Leo, S. J. (1999). History and Importance of Selenium for Poultry. A. L. Moxon Honorary Lectures, Special Circular 167-99, Extension/Research Bulletin, The Ohio State University. Available on-line at http://ohioline.osu.edu/sc167/sc167_05.html (1 of 9) [Accessed 5/9/2009 5: 22: 20 PM].
[59]
Levander, O. F. (1986). Selenium. In W. Mertz (ed.), Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 2. Academic Press, London. pp. 209–279.
[60]
Levesque, M. (1974). Some aspects of selenium relationships in Eastern Canadian soils and plants. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 54, 205–214.
[61]
Lewis, L. D. (1995). Equine clinical nutrition. Feeding and care. 1st ed., Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 587pp.
[62]
Mahan, D. C. (1995). Selenium metabolism in animals: What role does selenium yeast have? In: T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques (eds.), Biotechnology in the Feed Industry, Nottingham U. Press, Nottingham, UK. pp. 257-267.
[63]
Mahan, D. C. (2000). Effect of organic and inorganic selenium sources and levels on sow colostrum and milk selenium content. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 100–105.
[64]
Mahan, D. C. (2001). Selenium and Vitamin E in Swine Nutrition. In: A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern (eds.), Swine Nutrition, Second Edition, CRC Press, New York. Pp 282-314.
[65]
Mahan, D. C., Cline, T. R., & Richert, B. (1999). Effect of dietary levels of selenium enriched yeast and sodium selenite as selenium sources fed to growing-finishing pigs on performance, tisssue selenium, serum glutathione peroxidase activity, carcass characteristics, and loin quality. Journal of Animal Science, 77, 2172-2179.
[66]
Mahan, D. C., & Moxon, A. L. (1984). Effect of inorganic selenium supplementation on selenosis in postweaning swine. Journal of Animal Science, 58,1216-1221.
[67]
Mehdi, Y., & Dufrasne, I. (2016). Selenium in Cattle: A Review. Molecules 21, 545; doi: 10.3390/molecules21040545.
[68]
Mehdi, Y., Hornick, J., Istasse, L., & Dufrasne, I. (2013). Selenium in the Environment, Metabolism and Involvement in Body Functions. Molecules, 18(3), 3292-3311 doi: 10.3390/molecules18033292.
[69]
Meneses, A., Batra, T. R., Hidiroglou, M. (1994). Vitamin E and selenium in milk of ewes. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 74, 567-569.
[70]
Miller, W. T., & William, K. T. (1940). Minimum lethal dose of selenium as sodium selenite for horses, mules, cattle and swine. Journal of Agricultural Research, 60, 163-173.
[71]
Montgomery, J. B., Wichtel, J. J., Wichtel, M. G., McNiven, M. A., & McClure, J. T. (2011). The efficacy of selenium treatment of forage for the correction of selenium deficiency in horses. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 170, 63-71 doi:org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.07.018.
[72]
Morris, J. S., & Crane, S. B. (2013). Selenium Toxicity from a Misformulated Dietary Supplement, Adverse Health Effects, and the Temporal Response in the Nail Biologic Monitor. Nutrients 5, 1024-1057; doi: 10.3390/nu5041024.
[73]
Morris, J. G., Cripe, W. S., Chapman, H. L., Walker, D. F., Armstrong, J. B., Alexander Jr., J. D., Miranda, R., Sanchez Jr., Sanchez, A. B., Blair-West, J. R., & Denton, D. A. (1984). Selenium deficiency in cattle associated with Heinz bodies and anemia. Science, 223, 491–493.
[74]
Mortimer, R. G., Dargatz, D. A., & Corah, L. R. (1999). Forage Analyses from Cow-Calf Herds in 23 States. USDAAPHIS:VS, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health. Fort Collins, CO. #N303.499. April 1999.
[75]
Moxon, A. L. (1937). Alkali disease or selenium poisoning. South Dakota. Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. 311, 91 pp.
[76]
Moxon, A. L. (1941). The influence of arsenic on selenium poisoning in hogs. Proceedings of South Dakota Academy of Science, 21, 34.
[77]
Murphy, M. D., & Quirke, W. Q. (1997). The effect of sulfur/nitrogen/ selenium interactions on herbage yield and quality. Irish Journal of Agricultural Food Research, 36, 31-41.
[78]
Muth, O. H. (1963). White muscle disease, a selenium-responsive myopathy. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association, 142, 272–277.
[79]
Netto, A. S., Zanetti, M. A., Correa, L. B., Del Claro, G. R., Salles, M. S., & Vilela, F. G. (2014). Effects of Dietary Selenium, Sulphur and Copper Levels on Selenium Concentration in the Serum and Liver of Lamb. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 27(8): 1082–1087. http://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13818.
[80]
Nielsen, H. E., Danielsen, V., Simesen, M. G., Gissel-Nielsen, G., Hjarde, W., Leth, T., & Basse, A. (1979). Selenium and vitamin E deficiency in pigs. I. Influence on growth and reproduction. Acta Veterinary Scandinavia, 20, 276-278.
[81]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (1971). Selenium in Nutrition. Agricultural Board Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Academy of Science, National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 79pp.
[82]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (1980). Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. Subcommittee on Mineral Toxicity in Animals, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Academy of Science, National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 577pp.
[83]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (1983). Selenium in Nutrition. Subcommittee on Selenium, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Academy of Science, National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 174pp.
[84]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (1994). Nutrient requirements of poultry 9th revised edition. Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council (USA), National Academies Press., Washington, D. C. 155pp.
[85]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (1998). Nutrient requirements of swine 10th revised edition. Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council, National Research Council (USA), National Academies Press., Washington, D. C. 189pp.
[86]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (2000). Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition: Update 2000. Subcommittee on Beef Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council (USA), National Academies Press., Washington, D. C. 248pp.
[87]
NRC, (US National Research Council).(2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition, 2001. Subcommittee on dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council (USA), National Academies Press., Washington, D. C. 408pp.
[88]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (2005). Mineral Tolerance of Animals: Second Revised Edition. Committee on Minerals and Toxic Substances in Diets and Water for Animals, National Research Council, National Academy of Science, National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 510pp.
[89]
NRC, (US National Research Council). (2007). Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. Committee on the Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants, National Research Council (USA), National Academies Press., Washington, D. C. 384pp.
[90]
Olsen, O. A., & Palmer, L. S. (1976). Seleno amino acids in tissues of rats administered inorganic selenium. Metabolism, 25, 299–306.
[91]
Poley, W. E., Wilson, W. O., Moxon, A. L., & Taylor, J. B. (1941). The effect of selenized grains on the rate of growth in chicks. Poultry Science, 20, 171.
[92]
Pond, W. G., Allaway, W. H., Walker Jr., E. F., & Krook, L. (1971). Effects of corn selenium content and drying temperature and of supplemental vitamin E on growth, liver selenium and blood vitamin E content of chicks. Journal of Animal Science, 33, 996-1000.
[93]
Pope, A. L., Moir, R. J., Somers, M., Underwood, E. J., & White, C. L. (1979). The effect of (dietary) sulphur on 75Se (selenium isotope) absorption and retention in sheep. Journal of Nutrition, 109, 1448-1455.
[94]
Rammel, C. G., Thompson, K. G., Bentley, G. R., & Gibbsons, M. W. (1989). Selenium, vitamin E and polyunsatured fatty acid concentrations in goat kids with and without nutritional myodegeneration. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 37, 4-10.
[95]
Rayman, M. (2000). The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356, 233-241.
[96]
Rosenfeld, I., & Beath, O. A. (1964). Selenium: Geobotany, biochemistry, toxicity, and nutrition. Academic Press, New York. 411pp.
[97]
Rotruck, J. T., Pope, A. L., Ganther, H. E., Swanson, A. B., Hafeman, D. C., & Hoekstra, W. G. (1973). Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science, 59, 588-590.
[98]
Schrauzer, G. N. (2000). Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1653–1656.
[99]
Schrauzer, G. N. (2003). The nutritional significance, metabolism, and toxicology of selenomethionine. Advanced Food Nutrition Research, 47, 73-112.
[100]
Schwarz, K., & Foltz, C. M. (1957). Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79, 3392-3393.
[101]
Séboussi, R., Tremblay, G. F., Ouellet, V., Chouinard, P. Y., Chorfi, Y., Bélanger, G., & Charbonneau, E. (2016). Selenium-fertilized forage as a way to supplement lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 99: 5358-5369, http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10758.
[102]
Seppala, A., Albarran, Y., Miettinen, H., Siguero, M., Juutinen, E., & Rinne, M. (2014). Selenium supplementation by addition of sodium selenate with silage additive. Agriculture and Food Science, 23: 81-88.
[103]
Smith Jr., C. R., Weisleder, D., & Miller, R. W. (1980). Linustatin and neolinustatin: cyanogenic glycosides of linseed meal thatprotect animals against selenium toxicity. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 45, 507-510.
[104]
Smith, M. I., Westfall, B. B., Stohlman Jr., E. F. (1937). The elimination of selenium and its distribution in the tissues. United States Public Health Report, 52, 1171-1177.
[105]
Spallholz, J. E. (1997). Free radical generation by selenium compounds and their prooxidant toxicity. Biomedicine and Environmental Science, 10, 260-270.
[106]
Spears, J. W. (2003). Trace Mineral Bioavailability in Ruminants. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 1506-1509.
[107]
Spears, J. W., Harvey, R. W., & Segerson, E. C. (1986). Effects of marginal selenium deficiency and winter protein supplementation on growth, reproduction and selenium status of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Scence, 63, 586-594.
[108]
Spencer, R. P., & Blau, M. (1962). Intestinal Transport of Selenium-75 Selenomethionine. Science, 136, 155 – 156.
[109]
Stephen, R. C., Saville, D. J., & Watkinson, J. H. (1989). The effects of sodium selenate applications on growth and selenium concentration in wheat. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 7, 229–237.
[110]
Surai, P. F., Fisinin, V. I., & Karadas, F. (2016). Antioxidant systems in chick embryo development. Part 1. Vitamin E, carotenoids and selenium, Animal Nutrition, 2, 1-11, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2016.01.001.
[111]
Surai, P. F., Fisinin, V. I., & Papazyan, T. T. (2008). Selenium deficiency in Europe: causes and consequences. In: P. F. Surai and J. A. Taylor-Pickard (eds.) Current advances in selenium research and applications, pp.13-44. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
[112]
Swaine, D. J. (1955). The trace-element content of soils: Harpenden, England. Commonwealth. Bureau of Soil Science (Great Britain) Technical Communications, 48, 91.
[113]
Telfer, S. B., Zervas, G., & Carlos, G. (1984). Curing or preventing deficiencies in copper, cobalt and selenium in cattle and sheep using tracerglass. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, (Suppl.) 64, 234-235.
[114]
Thomson, C. D. (2013). Selenium, In Benjamin Caballero Ed. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), Academic Press, Waltham, pp 186-192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375083-9.00248-8.
[115]
Tufarelli, V., & Laudadio, V. (2011). Role and Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation in Dairy Ruminant Livestock Production. Vitamin and Trace Element 1: 102. doi: 10.4172/2167-0390.1000e102
[116]
Umesh, G. C., & Subhas, C. G. (2010). Selenium Deficiency in Soils and Crops and its Impact on Animal and Human Health, Current Nutrition and Food Science, 6, 268-280.
[117]
Underwood, E. J., & Suttle, N. (2001). The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, Third Edition. Oxford University Press, CABI publishing, Oxford, UK. 624pp.
[118]
Varo, P., Alfthan, G., Ekholm, P., Aro, A., & Koivistoinen, P. (1988). Selenium intake and serum selenium in Finland: Effect of soil fertilization with selenium. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48, 324-329.
[119]
Vinceti, M., Mandrioli, J., Borella, P., Michalke, B., Tsatsakis, A., & Finkelstein, Y. (2014). Selenium neurotoxicity in humans: Bridging laboratory and epidemiologic studies, Toxicology Letters, 230: 295-303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.11.016.
[120]
Wahlstrom, R. C., Kamstra, L. D., Olson, O. E. (1955). The effect of arsanilic acid and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid on selenium poisoning in the pig. Journal of Animal Science, 14, 105-110.
[121]
Wahlstrom, R. C., Kamstra, L. D., & Olson, O. E. (1956). The effect of organic arsenicals, chlortetra-cycline and linseed oil meal on selenium poisoning in swine. Journal of Animal Science, 15, 794-799.
[122]
Wendel, A. (1980). Glutathione peroxidase. In Jakoby, W. B., ed., Enzymatic Basis of Detoxification, vol. 1, pp. 333-353. Academic Press, New York, NY.
[123]
Whanger, P. D. (2002). Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 21, 223-232.
[124]
Whanger, P. D., Weswig, P. H., Oldfield, J. E., Cheeke, P. R., & Muth, O. H. (1972). Factors influencing selenium and white muscle disease: forage types, salts, amino acids and dimethyl sulfoxide. Nutrition Report International 6, 21-37.
[125]
Whelan, B. R., Peter, D. W., & Barrow, N. J. (1994). Selenium Fertilizers for Pastures Grazed by Sheep. I. Selenium. Concentrations in Whole Blood and Plasma. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 45, 863-875.
[126]
White, C. L., Cadwalader, T. K., Hoekstra, W. G., & Pope, A. L. (1989). The metabolism of 75Se-selenomethionine in sheep given supplementary copper and molybdenum. Journal of Animal Science, 67, 2400-2408.
[127]
Zeng, H., Cao, J. J., Combs Jr., G. F. (2013). Selenium in Bone Health: Roles in Antioxidant Protection and Cell Proliferation. Nutrients 5, 97-110; doi: 10.3390/nu5010097.
[128]
Zhang, J., Wang, X., & Xu, T. (2008). Elemental Selenium at Nano Size (Nano-Se) as a Potential Chemopreventive Agent with Reduced Risk of Selenium Toxicity: Comparison with Se-Methylselenocysteine in Mice. Toxicology Science, 101, 22-31 doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfm221.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186