International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 45-49
Received: Nov. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Feb. 1, 2019;
Published: May 15, 2019
Views 676 Downloads 144
Hadwan Hamid Ali, Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Francis Araha Janno, Directorate of Agr-Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Rafal Esmael Majed, Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
Muntaser Mansor Hamza, Directorate of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Irap
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of biofertilizers in improving wheat yield, yield components, and nutrients balance in soil. Local and imported biofertilizers were applied in a field experiment at Erbil, Iraq for the season 2016-2017. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. The experiment consisted of five treatments: T1 = Natrusoil (Commercial Biofertilizer) only, T2 = Natrusoil + 25% Chemical Fertilizers (CF), T3 = Local Biofertilizer B1 + 25%CF, T4 = Local Biofertilizers B2 + 25%CF, and T5 = CF as a Control (Recommended: Urea = 260 kg/ha, DAP = 180 kg/ha). Management practices in soil preparation and crop management followed the common and general procedures. Most test biofertilizers significantly increased yield of wheat grain or yield components. Maximum significant grain yield was obtained from biofertilizers treatments Natrusoil+25%CF (4.659) and B1+25%CF (4.691) as compared with the Control (3.987 kg ha-1). The increase in yield was in the range 17-18%. The application of biofertilizer resulted in a positive effect on nutrients balance in the soil at the end of season regardless of type of biofertilizrs as indicated by the increase in levels of NH4, NO3, P, and K. Among the benefits of using bioferilizers is the reduction in cost. The reduction was 47% in using the imported Natrusoil + 25%CF increased to 72% when using the Natrusoil alone.
Hadwan Hamid Ali,
Francis Araha Janno,
Rafal Esmael Majed,
Muntaser Mansor Hamza,
Effect of Biofertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) Under Iraqi Conditions, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2019, pp. 45-49.
HisniKovasky, L. and E. Kunzova (2014) Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers on yield and Technological parameters of Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) on Illimerized Luvisol. Polish Journal of Agronomy 17: 18-24.
Sharma, A. K. (2002) Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture, Agro-Bios. pp300.
Heidaryan, J. and A. Feilinezhad (2015) On the effect of biofertilizers on the yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under Eyvan climate conditions. Biological forum – An international Journal 7(1): 581-585.
Salah, E. A. M., K. H. Yassin and S. Abd-AlSalaam (2015) Level, distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban community garden soils in Baghdad city, Iraq International Journal scientific and engineering Research, 6 (10): 1646-1652c.
Tawfiq L. N. M. and F. F. Ghazi (2017) Heavy metals pollution in soil and its influence in south of Iraq. International Journal of Discrete Mathematics, 2(3): 59-63.
Al-Maiahy, R. S. B. (2012) Phosphatic fertilizers and organic manures content of some heavy metals and their effects on soil and wheat plant pollution (Triticum aestivum L.). M. Sc. Thesis. College of Agriculture, University of Basrah.
Manii, J. K. (2014) Using GIS to study the probability pollution of surface soil in Babylon province, Iraq. Journal of applied Geology and Geophysics (10SR-JAG) 2(1): 14-18.
Abou El-Yazeid, A., H. E. Abou-Aly, M. A. Mady and S. A. M. Moussa (2007) Enhancing growth productivity and quality of squash plants using phosphate dissolving microorganisms (bio phos-phor) combined with boron foliar spray. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 3(4): 274-286.
Mohammadi K. and Y. Sohrabi (2012) Bacterial biofertilizers for sustainable crop production. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7(5): 307-3016.
Sharma, P., A. N. Patel, M. K. Saini and S. Deep (2012) Field demonstration of Trichoderma harizianum as plant growth promoter in wheat (Triticum asetivum L) Journal of agricultural science, 4(8): 56-73.
Yasin, M., K. Ahmad, W. Mussarat and A. Tanveer (2012) Bio-fertilizers, substitution of synthetic fertilizers in cereals for leveraging agriculture. Crop and Environment 3(1-2): 62-66.
Pramod, W. R. (2017) Rhizobacteria in sustainable Agriculture development. Technological Advancement for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (TASARD-India), 11.
Abd El-Gawad, A. M. and Z. T. El-Sayed (2009) Evaluation the response of wheat to Bio-organic Agriculture under Siwa Oasis conditions. Indian J. Agric. Asci., 49: 34 - 43.
Castagno, L. N., M. J. Estrella, A. Grassano, and O. A. Ruiz (2008) Biochemical and molecular characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and evaluation of its efficiency promoting the growth of lotus tenuis. Lotus Newsletter, 38 (2): 53-56.
Ahmed, M., A. Hussein, M. F. Zakhtar, M. Zafar-U-Hye, Z. Iqbal, T. Naz, M. M. Iqbal (2017) Effectiveness of multi-strain biofertilizers in combination with organic sources for improving the productivity of Chickpea in drought ecology. Asia Journal Agriculture and biology 5(4): 228—237.
HisniKovasky, L. and E. Kunzova (2014) Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers on yield and Technological parameters of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) on Illimerized Luvisol. Polish Journal of Agronomy 17: 18-24.
Ali, N. and T. Khandan (2013) Response of wheat to mineral nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizer (Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp.) inoculation under different levels of weed interference. Ekologija, 59(2): 85-94.
Abed, Y. M., H. A. Abedelrathe and H. A. Hadwan (2016) Effectiveness of biofertilizers produced from Pseudomonas Putida and Pseudomonas flourescens on soil characteristics and wheat yield (Triticum asetivum L) and yield component. Iraqi Agriculture sciences Journal 47: 1412-1404.
Majed, R. E., H. A. Hadwan, H. A. Abed, M. M. Hamza, O. F. Hasan and E. H. Ali (2017) Estimate different bioagent as a biofertilizers with two levels from chemical fertilizers on wheat crop improvement. Iraqi Journal Science 58(4B): 2035-2040.
Page, A. L., R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (1982) Methods of soil analysis. Part2. Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed. American Society Agronomy Inc., Soil Science Amer. Inc. Madison Wisconsin, USA.
Belimov, A. A., P. A. Kojemiakov and C. V. Chuvarliyeve (1995) Interaction between barley and mixed cultures of nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Plant and Soil, 173: 29-37.
Heidaryan, J. and A. Feilinezhad (2015) On the effect of biofertilizers on the yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under Eyvan climate conditions. Biological forum – An international Journal 7: 581-585.
Mozafari, A., J. Daneshian, D. Habibi, A. H. Shirani Rad, F. Asgharzad (2012) The effect of growth promoting bacteria on yield and components of bread wheat in normal and soil tension conditions. 12th Congress of Agricultural Sciences and Plant Modification of Iran Islamic Azad University of Karaj. 14-16.
Verma, M., S. Sharma, R. Prasad (2011) Liquid biofertilizer: Advantage over carrier-based biofertilizer for sustainable crop production. Newsletter International Society Environment Botany 17(2).