Nematodes Associated with Kiwi Plants in Central Horticulture Centre Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages: 71-74
Received: Mar. 17, 2019;
Accepted: Apr. 27, 2019;
Published: Jun. 25, 2019
Views 644 Downloads 206
Bijay Chhetri, Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
Janak Raj Subedi, Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
Plants provide space for the occurrence of different trophic groups of nematodes. The occurrence of nematodes near the rhizosphere of plants, such as parasitic, free-living etc. can determine the survival of plants and finally the production of plants. Altogether 40 samples from the 30 cm apart from the kiwi plants were tested to identify the distribution of nematodes in Kiwi plants at Central Horticulture Centre, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. All together 10 genera of nematodes including both free living/beneficial and parasitic were identified during the study period. Overall, 830 individuals of 10 nematodes were found to be associated with Kiwi plants, among them order Rhabditida was reported to be the highest (40.96%) which was followed by Mononchida (33.74%), Dorylaimida (15.66%) and Tylenchida (9.64%). These four genera of plant nematodes have been reported for the first time associated with Kiwi plants in Nepal. The result indicated that the nematodes are not significantly distributed in all Kiwi plants. For more production we recommend proper management of manures and Kiwi plants treatment.
Janak Raj Subedi,
Nematodes Associated with Kiwi Plants in Central Horticulture Centre Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2019, pp. 71-74.
Ayala, F. J., Rzhetsky, A. and Ayala, F. J. Origin of the metazoan phyla: Molecular clocks confirm paleontological estimates. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 1998; 95: 606-611.
Sanderson, M. J. Molecular data from 27 proteins do not support a Precambrian origin of land plants. American Journal of Botany, 2003; 90: 954–56.
Blaxter, M. L., De Ley, P., Garey, J. R., Liu, L. X., Scheideman, P., Vierstraete, A., Vanfleteren, J. R., Mackey, L. Y., Dorris, M., Frisse, L. M., Vida, J. T. and Thomas, W.K. A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda. Nature, 1998; 392: 71–75.
Blaxter, M. M., Dorris, M. and De Ley, P. Patterns and processes in the evolution of animal parasitic nematodes. Nematologica, 2000; 2: 43–55.
Singha, S., Singh, B. and Singh, A. P. Nematodes: A Threat to Sustainability of Agriculture. Proceeding of the Environment Science, 2015; 29: 215 – 216.
Nicol, L., Turner, S. J., Coyne, D. L. and Nijs, N. D. Current nematode threats to agriculture, 2011; 10.1007/978-94-007-0434-3_2.
Curl, E. A. Control of plant disease by crop rotation. The Botanical Review, 1963; 29: 413–479.
Nusbaum, C. J., and Ferris, H. The role of cropping systems in nematode population management. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 1973; 11: 423–440.
Freckman, D. W. Nematodes in Soil Ecosystems. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX., 1982.
Ingham, R. E. and Detling, J. K. Plant-herbivore interactions in a North American mixed-grass prairie. III. Soil nematode populations and root biomass on Cynomys ludovicianus colonies and adjacent uncolonized areas. Oecologia, 1984; 63: 307-313.
Yeates, G. W., Bongers, T., de Goede, R. G. M., Freckman, D. W. and Georgieva, S. S. Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera- an outline for soil ecologists. Journal of Nematology, 1993; 25: 315-331.
Wilson, E. H., Yichang, A. R. and Ferguson. E. H. Wilson, Yichang and the Kiwifruit. http: //arnoldia.arboretum.harvard.edu/pdf/articles/115 5.pdf. 15 April, 2017.
Beutel, J. A. Kiwifruit production in California. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1990.
Watson, R. N., Wilson, E. A. and Marsden, R. S. Distribution of plant- parasitic nematodes in the rhizosphere of Kiwi fruit. Acta Hortic., 1992; 297, 537-544; doi: 10.17660/ ActaHortic.1992.2 97. 70.
CHC. Central Horticulture Centre. Annual Report published by Central Horticulture Centre, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, 2011-2012.
Thapa, D. B. Kiwifruit culture. Lumbini Printing and Publication Pvt. Ltd., Ghattekulo, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2012; 2-3.
Cobb, N. A. Estimating the nema population of soil. U. S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Circ. 1: 48. Coetzee, V. 1967. Species of the Genus Iotonchus (Nematoda: Mononchidae) Occurring in Southern Africa. Nematologica, 1918; 13 (3): 367-377.
Baermann, G. Eineeinsache method zurauffindung von ankylostomum (Nematoden) larven in erdproben. Genee Sk. Tijdschr. Nederlands-Indië, 1917; 57: 131-137.
Seinhorst, J. W. Killing of nematodes for taxonomic study with hot F.A. 4:1. Nematologica, 1966; 12: 178.
Seinhorst, J. W. A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica, 1959; 4: 67-69.
Smart, G. C. and Nguyen, K. B. Illustrated key for the identification of common nematodes in Florida. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, 1988.
R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https: //www.R-project.org/, 2017.
Reyes, P. S. and Domingo, J. Mononchid nematodes from Spain. Description of Iotonchus rotundicaudatus sp. n. and observations on I. zschokkei (Menzel, 1913) Altherr, 1955. Review on Nematology, 1991; 14 (3): 353-360.
Čerevková, A. Diversity and Distribution of Nematode Communities in Grassland in Relation to Its Establishment Age and Utilization. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, 1-15.
FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The importance of soil organic matter. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, 2005, 64.
McSorley, R. and Frederick, J. J. Nematode Population Fluctuations during Decomposition of Specific Organic Amendments. Journal of Nematology, 1999; 31 (1): 37–44.
Djigal, D., Brauman, A., Diop, T., Chotte, J. L. and Villenave, C. Influence of bacterial-feeding nematodes (Cephalobidae) on soil microbial communities during maize growth. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2004; 36: 323–331.
Xue, Q. Nematode diversity of soil and litter in Mount Hamiguitan, the Philippines, with morphological and phylogenetic analysis of selected species. M. Sc. Thesis. Department of Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, B-9000, Belgium, 2013.