Determination of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination Tolerance Limit by Food Insect (Brachytrupes membranaceus) in Bodo Community, Niger Delta, Nigeria
Journal of Health and Environmental Research
Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 8-13
Received: Dec. 16, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 11, 2019;
Published: Mar. 19, 2019
Views 659 Downloads 125
Gbarakoro Tambeke Nornu, Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Ozonma Obiageli Ukamaka, Department of Animal & Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminant passes from contaminated soils to soil-inhabiting food insects and alter the tolerance limit and nutritional contents of the insects. Species samples of adult Brachytrupes membranaceus; an edible insect mostly consumed by children in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, and its soil substrates were collected from petroleum contaminated habitat-types of 5yr-pipeline, 2yr artisanal refinery-source pollution and unpolluted sites, monthly for 6 months (May-Oct, 2017), using hand and bucket-type soil auger, at Bodo community. The samples were processed in the laboratory for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and nutritional content, using KJELDAHL method and analyzed by GCFID and UV spectrophotometer analyses, respectively, to investigate human health impact of TPH contamination through insect-pathways. The results indicated that the mean values of the TPH in the soil were 1.35ppm (control), 373.67ppm (pipeline) and 351.37ppm (artisanal refinery) and in the crickets the values were 6.42ppm (control), 355.90ppm (pipeline) and 312.93ppm (artisanal refinery). The TPH in insects collected monthly from the control habitat-type recorded below 100ppm and those insects collected from polluted habitat-type recorded above 100ppm. Four mineral elements, Fe, Ca, Mg and P were detected in crickets collected from the three habitat-types. The habitat-type which contained higher TPH concentration recorded higher values of Fe (pipeline: 349mg/kg), Mg values was higher in artisanal refinery (187.8mg/kg) and P values was higher in the control (283.2mg/kg). The increase in levels of mineral elements, proteins and fat in polluted crickets-habitats over those of non-polluted was abnormal and hydrocarbon-induced and may cause human health implications for cricket consumers. Statistical analyses indicate a significant difference between the concentrations of TPH in the soils and crickets collected from the control and polluted habitat-types but insignificant between that of the soils and crickets collected from the same polluted habitat-types. Results implies that the TPH contained in the crickets exceeded the allowable tolerance limit by Nigerian authority, and had impact on levels of mineral elements.
Gbarakoro Tambeke Nornu,
Ozonma Obiageli Ukamaka,
Determination of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination Tolerance Limit by Food Insect (Brachytrupes membranaceus) in Bodo Community, Niger Delta, Nigeria, Journal of Health and Environmental Research.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 8-13.
FAO (2013). The state of Food Insecurity in the World, Addressing Food Security in Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
EFSA (2015). (European Food Safety Authority) Scientific Opinion on risk profile related to Production and consumption of Insects as Food and Feed. http.,//dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4257.
Banjo, AD, Lawal, OA, Songonuga EA (2006). The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible Insects in South western Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5 (3): 298-301.
Madritch, MD, Donaldson JR, and Lindroth RL (2007). Canopy herbivory can mediate the Influence of plant genotype on soil processes through frass deposition. Soil Biol. Biochem 29:1192-1201.
Schowalter, TD (2000). Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach. Academic Press, New York.
Reynolds, B. C, Hunter, MD, and Crossley, DA Jr (2000). Effects of Canopy herbivory on nutrient.
Van Huis, A. (2013). Potential of Insects as Food and Feed in assuring Food Security. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 563-583.
Lundy, ME, and Parrella MP (2016), Crickets are not a Free Lunch: Protein capture from Scalable Organic side-streams via High Density Populations of Acheta domesticus doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118785.
ATSDR, (1999) Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. Available at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/Tox profiles/tp 123-p.pdf.
Ekundayo, E. O., and Obiekwe, C. O (1997). Effects of an oil spill on soil physic-chemical properties of a spill site in typical pale-adult of mid-western Nigeria. Environmental and Assessment, 45:209-221.
Iwegbue, C. M. A., Nwajei. G. E, and Arimoro, F. O. (2007). Characteristic level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Soil, sediment and surface water of an oil impacted area in the Niger Delta. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 50 (4) 247-250.
Landsdell and McConnell (2003). Ecological Considerations in Setting Soil Criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (< C15) and Napthalene. In proceedings of the fifth National Workshop on the Assessment of site contamination eds. Langley, A, Gilbey, M and Kennedy, B.
Salanitro et al., Crude oil Hydrocarbons Bioremediation and soil Ecotoxicity Assessment, Environmental Science and Technology 31 (6): 1769-1776.
Dorn et al (1998). Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Crude oils in soils using Earthworms microtox (R), and plants, chemosphere 37 (5): 845-860.
NAFDAC (1996). National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control. Pesticide Registration Regulations, B 303- B307.
EGASPIN (1992). Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industries in Nigeria, issued by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), Nigeria and Global Legal Revised Edition, (2002) Group Limited, London, UK.
FAO (1968). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Pesticide Residues in Food. 19pp.
Ogbalu, O. K and Renner, R. N. (2015). Microbiological Investigations on Gryllotalpa Africana (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), an Edible Cricket of the Niger Delta. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. Vol. 10, Issue I Ver. II, pp38-42.
Iloba, B. N. & Ekrakene T. (2008). Soil microarthropods Associated with mechanic workshop soil in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, Res. J. of Agric. Biol. Sc. 4 (1): 40-45.
Gbarakoro T. N, Okiwelu, S. N., Umeozor, O. C., and Badejo, A. (2011). Soil microarthropods in a Secondary Rainforest, Rivers State, Nigeria-III-Partial Recovery after an Oil Spill. Int. Journal of Ecosystem 1 (1):1-4.
Song, H., Wang, X., Bartha, R., (1990). Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 652-656.
WHO (1998). (World Health Organization) Environmental Health Criteria 202: Selected Non-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesekkschaft, stuggart. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Sverdrup, L. E. et al (2002). Effects of Eight polycylic aromatic compounds on the survival and Reproduction of Enchytracus crypticus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21 (1):109-114.
UNEP (2011). United Nations Environment Programme: Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland Publ. UNEP, Nairobi Kenya. 257pp
www.health of children.com/m/mineral-toxicity.html, 2018.
https://healthy eating.sfgate.com/dangers-excessive nutrients-6262.