Please enter verification code
Understanding Basics of Wheat Grain and Flour Quality
Journal of Health and Environmental Research
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2020, Pages: 10-26
Received: Aug. 19, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 25, 2019; Published: Apr. 8, 2020
Views 550      Downloads 230
Melaku Tafese Awulachew, Department of Food Science and Nutrition Research Process, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, Assela, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The aim of this material was to assist farmers, traders, processors and certified graders to understand and apply the wheat grains quality standard correctly in the determination of wheat quality and to ensuring that wheat farmers, traders, grain handlers, and processors meet relevant standards, reduce post-harvest wastage and provide safe, appropriate quality Wheat to consumers. This publication provides an insight into grain and flour quality wheat. In order for Ethiopian wheat to be marketable both domestically and for export, it must be suitable for its intended end-uses. This material provides information on the quality attributes for grain and flour quality. There is a continuing need for wheat quality research to maintain existing standards, to introduce new and updated information and to identify novel traits, markets and end-use products. All this information must be available to wheat breeders so that new wheat varieties target the intended end-use of growers, marketers and consumers. While farm-gate return in birrs per hectare will always be a grower’s key focus, choosing the variety that suits local growing conditions and is attractive to a range of buyers should help achieve maximum financial return. Considering the fact that the quality standards of wheat have been a major issue throughout the globe. Several recent timely topics have directed readers to information on Wheat and wheat quality standards. The Quality of wheat flour greatly affects water absorption, dough mixing requirements, proof times, yield and quality, mainly in terms of textural shelf life. These characteristics, plus the ability to absorb large quantities of sauce without becoming sticky, combine to give the required mouth feel. Therefore these basics will give you an edge in understanding how wheat and flour quality influences end use products. Wheat traders, marketers, plant breeders, bakers, growers, administration, sales personnel, managers – anyone working in the grains industry who would benefit from understanding this materials about grain and flour quality of wheat.
Quality Standards, Grain, Flour, Wheat
To cite this article
Melaku Tafese Awulachew, Understanding Basics of Wheat Grain and Flour Quality, Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 10-26. doi: 10.11648/j.jher.20200601.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FAO. 2016. World Food Situation- Food Cereal Supply and Demand Brief. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Government of Pakistan. 2009. Economic Survey. Economic Affairs Division, Ministry of Finance, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Ethiopian standard agency 665: 2017. Wheat grain specification, second edition.
Birdsall, "Summary and Areas for Future Research." Am. J. of Clin. Nutr. 41 (5 suppl) May 1985: 1172-1176.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2005. FAOSTAT [Online]. Available at [cited 24 Feb. 2005; verified 14 Oct. 2005].
Slafer, G. A. and E. H. Satorre, 1999. An introduction to the physiological – ecological analysis of wheat yield. In E. H. Satorre and G. A. Slafer (Eds.), Wheat: Ecology and physiology of yield determination, 3-12.
CSA. 2015. Agricultural Sample Survey. Report on Area and Production of Major Crops for Private Peasant Holdings, 2014/15 Meher Season. Central Statistical Agency, Addis Ababa.
CSA, 2007. Agricultural sample survey: Report on area and production for major crops. Statistical Bulletin 388. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Kent NL and AD Evers. 1994. Technology of Cereals. 4th Edn, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.
CIMMYT, 2000.1998/99. World Wheat Facts and Trends. Global Wheat Research in a Changing World, Challenges and Achievements, CIMMYT, D. F, Mexico.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1994. FAO Year book production 1993. Vol. 47. Rome, Italy.
Schulthess, U., B. Feil and S. C. Jutzi. 1997. Yield independent variation in grain nitrogen and phoshororus concentration among Ethiopian wheat. Agronomy Journal. 89 (3): 497-506.
Bekeke Hunde Kotu, H. Varkuijl, W. Mwangi and D. G. Tanner, 2000. Adaptation of improved wheat technologies in Adaba and Dodola woredas of the Bale highlands, Ethiopia. Mexico D. F: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO).
Kaplinsky, R. and Morris, M. 2000. A Handbook for Value Chain Research. IDRC, Ottawa, Canada.
Schmitz, H. 2005. Value Chain Analysis for Policy-Makers and Practitioners. International Labour Organization.
Anandajayasekeram, P. and Berhanu Gebremedhin. 2009. Integrating Innovation Systems Perspective and Value Chain Analysis an Agricultural Research for Development: Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project, Working Paper 16. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya.
Beamon, B. M. 1998. Supply chain design and analysis: Models and methods. International Journal of Production Economics, 55 (3): 281-294.
KIT, MaLi, F. and IIRR, 2006. Chain empowerment: Supporting African farmers to develop market. Hand book Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam; Faida Markrt Link, Arusha; and International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Nairobi.
Kaplinsky, R. and Morris, M. 2001. A Handbook of Value Chain Analysis. Working paper prepared for the IDRC, Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
GTZ (German Technical Cooperation). 2007. Value Links Manual -The Methodology of Value Chain Promotion, 1 st Edition. Eschborn, Germany. 45p.
Fleming, K. 2005. Value-added strategies: Taking agricultural products to the next level. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii. Agribusiness, 31 (4): 125-134.
Berhanu Gebremedhin and Moti Jaleta. 2010. Commercialization of smallholders: Does market orientation translate into market participation? Improving productivity and market success (IPMS) of Ethiopia farmer project, working paper 22. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya.
Backman, T. N. and Davidson, W. R. 1962. Marketing Principle. The Ronal Presses Co., New York. pp. 3-24.
Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. 2003. Principle of Marketing, 10th Edition. Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, pp 5-12.
Abbott, C. and Makeham, P. 1990. Agricultural Economics and Marketing in the Tropics, 2nd Edition. Longman Group Limited. Harlow, England.
CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). 2004. Increasing the Competitiveness of Market chains for Smallholder producers. Manual 3: Territorial Approach to Rural Agro-Enterprise Development Project. Cali, Colombia.
Thakur, D. S., Harbans, L., Thakur, D. R., Sharma, K. D. and Saini, A. S. 1997. Market supply response and marketing problems of farmers in the Hills, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 52 (1): 139-150.
Islam, M. S., Miah, H. and Haque, M. M. 2000. Marketing system of marine fish in Bangladesh: Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics, 24 (2) 127-142.
Wang XY, He MR, Li F, Liu YH, Zhang HH, Liu CG (2008c) Coupling effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain protein and starch quality of strong-gluten winter wheat. Front Agric China 2: 274-280.
Zhang Y, He ZH, Ye GY, Zhang AM, Ginkel MV (2004b) Effect of environment and genotype on bread-making quality of spring-sown spring wheat cultivars in China. Euphytica 139: 75-83.
He ZH, Yang J, Zhang Y, Quail KJ, Peña RJ (2004) Pan bread and dry white Chinese noodle quality in Chinese winter wheats. Euphytica 139: 257-267.
Li HN, Zhang YL, Wu XQ, Li ZZ (1995) Determination and evaluation on the main quality characters of wheat germplasm resources in China. Sci Agric Sin 28: 29-37 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Jing Q, Jiang D, Dai TB, Cao WX (2003) Effects of genotype and environment on wheat grain quality and protein components. Chinese J Appl Ecol 14: 1649-1653.
Peterson CJ, Graybosch RA, Shelton DR, Baenziger PS (1998) Baking quality of hard winter wheat: response of cultivars to environment in the Great Plains. Euphytica 100: 157-62.
Zhao L, Zhang KP, Liu B, Deng ZY, Qu HL, Tian JC (2010) A comparison of grain protein content QTLs and flour protein content QTLs across environments in cultivated wheat. Euphytica 174: 325-335.
Shi SB, Ma L, Shi QH, Liu X, Chen LM, Liu JX, Wang ZL (2005) Effect of nitrogen application timing on protein constitutes and its dynamic change in wheat grain. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 11: 456-460.
Weegels PL, Hamer RJ, Schofield JD (1996) Functional properties of wheat glutenin. J Cereal Sci 23: 1-18.
Moss, 1973. Understanding Australian Wheat Quality.
CAHILL (L. M.), KRUGER (S. C.), MCALICE (B. T.), RAMSEY (C. S.), PRIOLI (R.), KHON (B.), 1999. Quantification of deoxynivalenol in wheat using immunoaffinity column and liquid chromatography. J. Cromatogr. 859: 23-28.
Anita, S., Rajesh, K. S., Madhoolika, A., Fiona, M. M., 2010. Healthrisk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffsfrom the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48, 611–619.
Das, A. K., 1990. Metal Ion Induced Toxicity and Detoxification byChelation Therapy, A textbook on Medical Aspects of Bio-inorganic chemistry. CBS, Delhi, 17–58.
Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Y. Z., Zhu, Y. G., 2008.
Nariago, J. O., 1990. Global metal pollution poisoning the biosphere. Environment 32, 7–33.
Melamed, R., Cao, X., Chen, M., Ma, L. Q., 2003. Field assessment oflead immobilization in a contaminated soil after phosphateapplication. Sci. Total Environ. 305, 117–127.
AL-Othman, Z. A., Naushad, Mu., Khan, M. R., Wabaidur, S. M., 2012. A comparative study on characterization of aluminiumtungstate and surfactant based aluminum tungstate cation exchang-ers: analytical applications for the separation of toxic metal ions. J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 22, 352–359.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186