Short-term Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Risk of Hypertension Among Adults: A Pilot Study in Ibadan
Journal of Health and Environmental Research
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 37-43
Received: May 11, 2020;
Accepted: May 28, 2020;
Published: Jun. 4, 2020
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Abiodun Moshood Adeoye, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Adekunle Fakunle, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Olajumoke Aderonmu, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Bamidele Tayo, Department of Public Health Sciences, Parkinson School of Health Sciences and Public Health, Loyola University, Chicago, USA
Air pollution has been associated with elevated blood pressure in adults. Data on this association in Nigeria, with the highest level of pollution in Africa is sparsse. The present study investigated the association between short-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution and hypertension. We conducted a case-control study comprising of 25 adults with hypertension and 25 age-, sex- and geographical location-matched normotensive controls. All participants had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring at the same time as indoor particulate matter monitoring using a real-time particle counter and compared with the WHO guideline limit (25μg/m3). All monitoring was carried out over 24 hours during the wet season. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for the relationship between hypertension and particulate matter exposure was assessed at P<0.05 using unconditional logistic regression model. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly higher among hypertensive patients (33.68±14.05μg/m3; 45.17±19.53μg/m3) compared to normotensives (17.86±9.50μg/m3; 22.45±11.51μg/m3), p<0.05. We observed strong correlations between PM2.5/PM10 and clinic BP (rs=0.47, p<0.001/rs=0.46, p<0.001), day-time BP (rs=0.59, p<0.001/rs=0.62, p<0.001), night-time BP (rs=0.64, p<0.001/rs=0.67, p<0.001) and BP dipping (rs=0.31, p<0.05/rs=0.29, p<0.05). Household size > 5 persons (aOR: 9.37; CI: 1.37 – 63.95) and PM2.5 > 25µg/m3 (aOR: 5.76; CI: 1.08 – 30.88) significantly increased the odds of hypertension. Short-term exposure to ambient PM air pollution was associated with a higher risk of hypertension. Air pollution reduction strategies may as well help in the prevention and control of hypertension. A large longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings.
Abiodun Moshood Adeoye,
Short-term Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Risk of Hypertension Among Adults: A Pilot Study in Ibadan, Journal of Health and Environmental Research.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2020, pp. 37-43.
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