Decolourization of Azo (Acid Red) and Anthraquinonic (Basic Blue) Dyes by the Fungus Aspergillus flavus
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 1-5
Received: Sep. 18, 2016;
Accepted: Jan. 18, 2017;
Published: Feb. 18, 2017
Views 3988 Downloads 180
Lokendra Singh , Department of Botany, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
Ved Pal Singh , Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Present investigation was carried out to study the fungal decolourization of azo (Acid red) and anthraquinonic (Basic blue) dyes by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Decolourization of tested dyes was observed visually and studied through spectrophotometric analyses. Growing fungal cultures were filtered through Whatman filter paper No. 1 and filtrates were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 minutes and supernatant was used for spectrophotometric observations, at absorbance 494 nm and 630 nm, for Acid red and Basic blue dyes, respectively. Decolourization/degradation was recorded by calculating the degradation percentage, using initial and final absorbance of the respective dye. The applied fungal species was found to be able to decolourize the mentioned dyes, as revealed by spectrophotometric analyses which showed a gradual decrease in the initial absorbance and increase in the mycelial yield of the used fungus. Decolourization/ degradation of dye were recorded to be 62%, for Basic blue and 77% for Acid red.
Lokendra Singh ,
Ved Pal Singh ,
Decolourization of Azo (Acid Red) and Anthraquinonic (Basic Blue) Dyes by the Fungus Aspergillus flavus, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2017, pp. 1-5.
Danesvar N, Ayazloo M, Khataee AR, Pourhassan M (2007) Biological decolorization of dye solution containing Malachite Green by microalgae Cosmarium sp. Biores Tech 98: 1176–1182.
Nigam P, McMullan GM, Banat IM, Merchant R (1996) Decolourization of effluent from the textile industry by a microbial consortium. BiotechnolLett 18: 117–120.
Delclos KB, Tarpley WG, Miller EC, Miller JA (1984) 4-aminoazobenzene and N, N-dimethyl-4-amenoazobenzene as equipotent hepatic carcinogens in male C57BL/6XC3H/He F1 mice and characterization of N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-4-aminoazobenzene as the major persistent hepatic DNA-bound dye in these mice. Canc Res 44: 2540–2550.
Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposal alternative. Biores Tech 77: 247–255.
Seong JK, Kenichi I, Mitsuyo H, Makoto S (1995) Characteristic of a newly isolated fungus, Geotrichum candidum Dec 1, which decolourize various dyes. J Ferment Bioeng 79 (6): 601–607.
Huag WA, Schmidt B, Nortemann DC, Hempel A, StolzKnackmuss HJ (1991) Mineralization of sulfonated azo dyes mordant yellow 3 by a 6-aminoaphthalene-2-sulfonate degrading bacterial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol57: 3144–3149.
Salar RK, Rohilla SK, Rohilla JK (2012) Decolorization of Reactive Black HFGR by Aspergillus sulphureus. Res J Recent Sci1 (1): 55–61.
Singh L, Singh VP (2012) Microbial decolourization of textile dyes by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. J Pure Appl Microbiol 6 (4): 1829–1833.
Awaluddin R, Ibrahim D, Ibrahim CO, Uyub AM (2001) Decolourization of commercial available synthetic dyes by the white-rot fungus, Phanerocheate chrysosporium ME446 (ATCC 34541). NSF workshop, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Mead R, Currow RN (1983) Statistical methods in agricultural and experimental biology. Chapman and Hall, London UK. Pp 335.
Singh L, Singh VP (2010a) Biodegradation of textile dyes Bromophenol blue and Congo red by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Environ We Int J Sci Tech 5 (4): 235–242.
Singh L Singh VP (2010b). Microbial degradation and decolourization of dyes in semi-solid medium by the fungus – Trichoderma harzianum. Environ We Int J Sci Tech 5 (3): 147–153.
Abadulla E, Tzanov T, Costa S, Robra KH, Cavaco-Paulo A, Gubtiz GM (2000) Decolourization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes versicolor. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 3357–3362.
Muthezhilan R, Yoganath N, Vidhya S, Jayalakshmi S (2008) Dye degrading mycoflora from industrial effluents. Res J Microbiol 3 (3): 204–208.
Knapp JS, Newby PS, Recee LP (1995) Decolourization of dyes by wood-rotting basidiomycete fungi. Enzy Microbiol Tech 17: 664–668.
Howksworth DL, Kirk TM, Sutton BC, Pegler DN (1995) Ainsworth and Biesby’s dictionary of fungi. CAB International, UK.
Heinfling A, Bergbauer MS (1997) Biodegradation of azo and phthalocyanine dyes by Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48: 261–266.
Wong Y, Yu J (1999) Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes. Water Res 3: 3512–3520.
Gold MH, Glenn JK, Alic M (1988) Use of polymeric dyes in lignin biodegradation assays. Meth Enzymol161: 74–78.
Berka R, Schneider MP, Golightly EJ, Brown ST, Madden M, Brown K, Halkier MT, Mondorf K, Xu F (1997) Characterization of the gene encoding an extracellular laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila and analysis of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 3151–3157.
Yever DS, Overjero MDC, Xu F, Nelson BA, Brown KM, Halkier T, Bernauer S, Brown SH, Kauppinen S (1999) Molecular characterization of laccase genes from the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus and heterologous expression of the laccase Lcc1. Appl Environ Microbiol65: 4943–4948.
Record E, Asther M, Sigoillot C, Pages S (2003) Overproduction of the Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterease for pulp bleaching application. Appl Environ Microbiol62: 349–355.
Saranraj P, Sumathi V, Reetha D, Stella D (2010) Fungal decolourization of direct azo dyes and biodegradation of textile dye effluent. J Ecobiotech 7: 12–16.
Vyas BRM, Molitores HP (1995) Involvement of an extracellular H2O2-dependent lignolytic activity of the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus in the decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R. Appl Environ Microbiol61: 3919–3927.
Kim SJ, Shoda M (1999) Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum Dec 1, which decolourizes various dyes. J Ferment Bioeng 79: 601–607.
Singh L, Singh VP (2015) Textile dyes degradation: A microbial approach for biodegradation of pollutants. In: Singh SN (ed) Microbial Degradation of Synthetic dyes in Waste waters, Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. pp: 187–204.