International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 63-69
Received: Feb. 27, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 12, 2017;
Published: Oct. 31, 2017
Views 2107 Downloads 125
Chukwunonso Livinus Udeh, Clinical Research, Amity Medical School, Amity University, Haryana, India
Pramod Singh Khatri, Department of Clinical Research, Amity Medical School, Amity University, Haryana, India
Any type of cancer that originate from the connective tissues are termed Sarcomas. The name Kaposi in relation to Kaposi sarcoma was derived from a Hungarian Dermatologist, Dr. Moritz Kaposi who is the first to describe this kind of tumor. KS is caused by a Herpes virus called HHV-8 or KSHV which is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (higher in MSM), sharing of used needles, blood transfusion and organ transplant. There are five (5) epidemiological types of KS; Classic, Transplant, African, AIDS-related and Non-epidemic gay related. KS is the commonest symptom of an advanced HIV infected patient and its proliferation is faster due to the weakened immune system. Awareness about this sarcoma is poor. This disease is generally diagnosed as brown, red or purple patches/plagues/nodules on the skin, mucosal cavity of the GIT, Lungs and the oral cavity. There are also immunohistochemical staining endothelial markers that are used to differentiate KS from other types of sarcomas. CD31 is best used as an endothelial marker for lesions from HIV+ patients. Some other common markers include CD4, LNA-1, BCL-2 and VEGFR-3. Other symptoms of KS are shortness of breath, internal bleeding Anemia and Fatigue. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is believed to be the most efficient treatment for AIDS-related KS. Other soothing treatments available are chemotherapy, topical ointments, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy and a times excisional surgery. There are active clinical trials towards treatment of KS. Some of which are done by combining different doses of HAART regimen with other therapeutic agents. One of the CTs been conducted by the National Cancer Institute in the U.S is the Phase II/ Phase I study using Pomalidomide in treating HIV and Non-HIV patients with Kaposi Sarcoma.
Chukwunonso Livinus Udeh,
Pramod Singh Khatri,
Kaposi Sarcoma: Clinical Indices and Diagnosis, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2017, pp. 63-69.
Ratini, M.(2015). “Sarcoma” from http://www.webmd.com/cancer/sarcoma#1
Kaposi, M (1872). "Idiopathisches multiples Pigmentsarkom der Haut". Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis. 4 (2): 265–273. doi: 10.1007/BF01830024.
Chang, Y.; Cesarman, E.; Pessin, M. S.; Lee, F.; Culpepper, J.; Knowles, D. M.; Moore, P. S. (1994). "Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma". Science. 266 (5192): 1865–1869. Bibcode: 1994Sci...266.1865C. doi: 10.1126/science.7997879. PMID 7997879.
American Cancer Society from http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003106-pdf.pdf
Cancer Association of South Africa (2016); Fact sheet on Kaposi Sarcoma from http://www.cansa.org.za/files/2016/01/Fact-Sheet-Kaposi-Sarcoma-Jan-2016.pdf
Phillips, A. M., Jones, A. G., Osmond, D. H., Pollack, L. M., Catania, J. A., Martin, J, N. (2008). "Awareness of Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus among men who have sex with men". Sex Transm Dis. 35 (12): 1011–4. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318182c91f (inactive 2015-02-02). PMC 2593118Freely accessible. PMID 18665016.
K. W. Wen, B. Damania (2009) Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV): Molecular biology and oncogenesis, Cancer Lett., doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.07.004.
R. Duprez, V. Lacoste, J. Briere, P. Couppie, C. Frances, D. SainteMarie, E. et al. (2007). Evidence for a multiclonal origin of multicentric advanced lesions of Kaposi sarcoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99: 1086– 1094.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaposi's_sarcoma-associated_herpesvirus
J. Taylor Whaley (2016). All About Kaposi's Sarcoma; The Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania. From https://www.oncolink.org/print/pdf/2037
Macmillan Cancer Support (2015) from http://www.macmillan.org.uk/documents/cancerinfo/combinedfactsheets/kaposissarcoma_mac12461_13.pdf
Radu, O. & Pantanowitz, L. (2013) Kaposi Sarcoma; Arch Pathol Lab Med. Vol 137, 289-294.
Ahmed, A., Bugaje, M. A., Babadoko, A. A., MBBS, Ameh, E. (2012) Management of AIDS-Associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma in Nigerian Children: A Case Series and Review of Literature. Journ Nation Med Asso, Vol. 104, NOS. 7 & 8, 385-389.
El-Ashmawy, A. A., El- Ayat, G. (2012). Kaposi sarcoma: immunohistochemical study of some diagnostic and prognostic markers. Journal of the Egyptian Women’s Dermatologic Society, 9: 77–85. DOI: 10.1097/01.EWX.0000413296.62974.c3.
Pantanowitz, L., Moses, A., Fruh, K., (2012). CD31 Immunohistochemical Staining in Kaposi Sarcoma. Letters to the Editor; Arch Pathol Lab Med. Vol 136: 1329. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2012-0153-LE.
Chinoy, R. F., Rangwalla, H., Rekhi, B. (2014). Curious Case of a Primary Intranodal Kaposi Sarcoma, Confirmed by Immunohistochemistry, in an HIV-positive African Male. Letter to the editor; Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 213-214. DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.131438.
Pantanowitz, L., Pinkus, G. S., Dezube, B. J., Tahan, S. R. (2005). HHV8 is not limited to Kaposi’s sarcoma. Mod Pathol. Vol. 18 (8): 1148–1150.
Roy, S. (2016). Pathology of Kaposi Sarcoma from http://www.histopathology-india.net/ks.htm
Sissolak, G, Mayaud, P. (2005). AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma: epidemiological, diagnostic, treatment and control aspects in sub-Saharan Africa; Tropical Medicine and International Health. Vol. 10 no 10 pp 981–992. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01491.x.
Mandal, A. (2012). Diagnosis of Kaposi Sarcoma from http://www.newsVmedical.net/health/Diagnosis-of-Kaposis-sarcoma.aspx
Sullivan, R. J., Pantanowitz, L., Casper, C., Stebbing, J., Dezube, B. J. (2008). Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus Disease: Kaposi Sarcoma, Primary Effusion Lymphoma, and Multicentric Castleman Disease; Clinical Infectious Diseases; 47: 1209-1215.
Casper C, Wald A. (2007). The use of antiviral drugs in the prevention and treatment of Kaposi sarcoma, multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol; 312: 289–307.
Little RF, Merced-Galindez F, Staskus K, et al. (2003). A pilot study of cidofovir in patients with kaposi sarcoma. J Infect Dis 2003; 187: 149–53.
Grundhoff A, Ganem D. (2004). Inefficient establishment of KSHV latency suggests an additional role for continued lytic replication in Kaposi sarcoma pathogenesis. J Clin Invest; Vol. 113: 124–36.
National Cancer Institute from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/search/results?protocolsearchid=7991705.
National Health Service U.K from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Kaposis-sarcoma/Pages/clinical-trial.aspx.
Centre Watch Kaposi Clinical Trials from https://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/condition/91/kaposis-sarcoma.