Assessment of Women and Children Vulnerability to Water Use in Low-Income Urban Area of Agbowo Community, Ibadan, Nigeria
International Journal of Sustainability Management and Information Technologies
Volume 5, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 29-34
Received: May 17, 2019; Accepted: Jun. 20, 2019; Published: Dec. 20, 2019
Views 434      Downloads 162
Tosin Kolajo Gbadegesin, Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Olawale Emmanuel Olayide, Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
One of the challenges of urbanization is the increasing vulnerability to quality water supply among households. Low-income urban households lack access to portable water and therefore have to supplement their limited supply with water from sources such as streams, rivers and wells. Whereas when water is available, the quantity is decreasing, and the quality is also compromised mainly due to high population growth accompanied by inadequate infrastructures and poor waste disposal practices. With children and women being most vulnerable to water challenges, the study examined the impacts of water shortages on women and children, investigated the effect of water supply on health outcome of children and looked into effect of water supply challenges on economic productivity of women in low-income urban area of Agbowo Community. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data was collected using KOBO collect software – an android-based application for collecting data while qualitative data was collected by employing Key Informant Interviews (KII). Statistical computations were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. A confidence level of 99% was used and p-values ≤ 0.01 was considered statistically significant. The study noted that 74.4% of the respondents reported children and teenagers <18 years old are tasked with the responsibility of getting water for their household while 74% reported the occurrence of physical deformity as a result of the weight of the water. The study recommended that households should take the responsibility of getting water off children that are too tender and suggested special needs women such as pregnant women and nursing mothers should be put into consideration in development of water supply facilities.
Low-Income Areas, Access to Water, Household, Urbanization, Vulnerability
To cite this article
Tosin Kolajo Gbadegesin, Olawale Emmanuel Olayide, Assessment of Women and Children Vulnerability to Water Use in Low-Income Urban Area of Agbowo Community, Ibadan, Nigeria, International Journal of Sustainability Management and Information Technologies. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 29-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsmit.20190502.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Adah, P. D and Abok G. 2013. Challenges of Urban Water Management in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management Volume 5, Number 1
Bradley J, Holmes B, Thomas S. (2007). Water quality snapshot 2001−2002: Historic baseline data for the Mount Lofty Ranges Watershed, Adelaide, USA.
Dzikus, A. (2001).”Managing Water for African Cities: An Introduction to Urban Water Demand”, Regional Conference on the Reform of the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Africa – Enhancing Public-Private Partnership in the Context of the Africa Vision for Water (2025), Kampala, Uganda
Hope RA (2006). Evaluating water policy scenarios against the priorities of the rural poor. World Development, Science of the Total Environment, 34 (1):167-179.
Hove Mediel & Auxillia Tirimboi. 2011. Assessment of Harare Water Service Delivery. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 13, No.4, 2011) ISSN: 1520-5509 Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania
Kalulu K, Hoko Z, Mayo AW, Kumwenda S (2012). Sustainability of Community Based Water Management in Mulanje District, Malawi. Basic Appl. Sci. Res. J. Text Road Publications.
Majuru B, Michael-Mokoena M, Jagals P, Hunter PR (2011). Health impact of Small-community water supply reliability. Int. J. Hygiene Environ. Health, 214(2):162-166.
Mainganye, T. J (2006). Local Governments‟ intervention strategies to improve service delivery: Case of rural areas of Vhembe District, South Africa, MDEV. Dissertation, University of Limpopo.
Murinda S. (2011). Comparative Assessment of Performance of Urban Water Supply Systems in Small Towns in Zimbabwe: MSc. thesis. University of Zimbabwe.
Nanan, White, Azam, Afsar, Hozhabri 2003: D. Nanan, F. White, I. Azam, H. Afsar and S. Hozhabri, “Bulleting of the World Health Organization” (Washington D. C., Mar.), 81 (3), 160.
Obeta Michael Chukwuma. (2016). Patterns and problems of domestic water supply to rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria Hydrology and Water Resources Unit, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Received 11 July, 2016; Accepted 21 September, 2016.
Stone, T. (2009). Water supply: Thinking strategically, IMIESA.
UNICEF/ WHO. (2004). Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target - A mid-term assessment of progress: United Nations Children's Fund and World Health Organisation, pp. 36
UNDP Human Development Report (2006): Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. Available at (accessed on 19th September 2012).
Water Aid (2008). Tackling the Silent Killer (London), 4, 6-9.
WHO and UNICEF (2000). The Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 (Geneva, New York: WHO, UNICEF).
World Health Organization (2006): Getting Africa on Track to Meet the Millennium Development Goals.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186