Factors Associated with Women Unemployment in Ethiopia
International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2019, Pages: 68-73
Received: Aug. 8, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 5, 2019;
Published: Nov. 11, 2019
Views 201 Downloads 96
Yenew Alemu Mihret, Department of Statistics, College of Natural and Computational Science, Injibara University, Injibara, Ethiopia
Follow on us
Unemployment is one of the main challenges of the modern era in both the developed and developing countries. Employment of women in economic activities has several beneficial effects for women and their families. Unemployment gives rise to private and social problems in the society such as increased crimes, suicides, poverty, alcoholism and prostitution. High level of unemployment rates can also contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in developing countries. In general, unemployment affects household income, health, government revenue and hence GDP and development at large. Studying unemployment therefore helps tackle these problems through some kind of policy actions. The average unemployment rate for women age from 15-49 was 48.8%. The unemployment rate is still significantly higher among females. Heavy domestic duties, pregnancy and discrimination are some of the reasons for female unemployment. Ethiopian women also earn less than men. Unemployment is more of a problem of women than that of their counterparts. This issue dictates the researcher to consider the determinants and consequences of unemployment of women in Ethiopia. In line with this, the objective of this study is to study the determinants of unemployment of women in the study area. This study used data from Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS), 2016. A Binary Logistic Regression Analysis is used to identify the most important determinant factors which are associated with the occupational status of women in Ethiopia. The result of binary logistic regression model also revealed that place of residence, educational level of woman, currently pregnant, currently breastfeeding, wealth index, age of the respondent at the first birth and marital status had significant effect on women unemployment at 5% level of significance.
Unemployment, Women, Binary Logistic Regression, Ethiopia
To cite this article
Yenew Alemu Mihret,
Factors Associated with Women Unemployment in Ethiopia, International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics.
Vol. 5, No. 5,
2019, pp. 68-73.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rafiq M, Ahmad I, Ullah A, Khan Z. Determinants of unemployment: A case study of Pakistan economy (1998-2008). Abasyn journal of social sciences. 2010; 3 (1): 17-24.
Eita JH, Ashipala JM. Determinants of unemployment in Namibia. International Journal of Business and Management. 2010 Oct 1; 5 (10): 92.
Haile GA. The incidence of youth unemployment in urban Ethiopia. In 2nd EAF International Symposium on Contemporary Development Issues in Ethiopia 2003.
Chen MA, Vanek J, Carr M. Mainstreaming informal employment and gender in poverty reduction: A handbook for policy-makers and other stakeholders. Commonwealth secretariat; 2004.
World Bank. World development report 2012: Gender equality and development. World Bank Publications; 2011.
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S, Sturdivant RX. Introduction to the logistic regression model. Applied logistic regression. 2000; 2: 1-30.
Healy LM. Logistic regression: An overview. Eastern Michighan College of Technology. 2006 Mar 20.
Agresti, A. (2002). An Introduction to Categorical data Analysis. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York.
Bhorat H. Unemployment in South Africa: Descriptors and determinants, unpub# lished consultant report for OECD.
Gizachew Gobebo, Wondaferahu Mulugeta and Temesgen Yaekob. Determinants of women unemployment: evidence from ethiopia (case of halabatown, SNNPR), 2017.
Winter C. Female earnings, labor force participation and discrimination in Venezuela, 1989. Case Studies V 2 on Women's Employment and Pay in Latin America. 1992: 463.
Kassa AF. Unemployment in Urban Ethiopia: Determinants and Impact on household welfare. Ethiopian Journal of Economics. 2012; 21 (2): 127-57.
Krishnan P. Family background, education and employment in urban Ethiopia. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 1996 Feb; 58 (1): 167-83.
Abebe Fikre K. Unemployment in Urban Ethiopia.
Chekol DA, Biks GA, Gelaw YA, Melsew YA. Exclusive breastfeeding and mothers’ employment status in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study. International breastfeeding journal. 2017 Dec; 12 (1): 27.
Demographic E. Health Survey Central Statistical Agency Addis Ababa. Ethiopia ICF International Calverton, Maryland, USA. 2011: 180-6.