A Review of Impacts of Gas Flaring on Vegetation and Water Resources in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment
Volume 2, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 48-55
Received: May 12, 2017; Accepted: Jun. 6, 2017; Published: Jul. 14, 2017
Views 1764      Downloads 74
Authors
Enetimi Idah Seiyaboh, Department of Biological Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Department of Biological Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Nigeria is an oil and gas producing nation. The Niger Delta is the Nigerian oil and gas province. About 10 – 40% of produced associated gas is underutilized and is flared into the environment. This is the usual trend in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. Gas flaring has adverse impacts on the environmental components and its associated biota. This paper reviews the impacts of gas flaring on the vegetation and water quality resources in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study found that gas flaring alters water ions (especially sulphate, carbonate, nitrate), pH, conductivity heavy metals (such as lead and iron) concentration especially in rainwater. It also affects vegetation leading to decrease in growth and productivity probably due to changes in soil quality parameters. The paper concludes by suggesting promulgation/implementation of gas glaring laws in Nigeria.
Keywords
Gas Flaring, Impacts, Vegetation Structure, Water Quality
To cite this article
Enetimi Idah Seiyaboh, Sylvester Chibueze Izah, A Review of Impacts of Gas Flaring on Vegetation and Water Resources in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 48-55. doi: 10.11648/j.ijeee.20170204.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Mogborukor, J. O. A. (2014). The Impact of Oil Exploration and Exploitation on Water Quality and Vegetal Resources in a Rain Forest Ecosystem of Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (27): 1678 – 1685.
[2]
Ohimain, E. I. (2013). Can the Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007) transform Nigeria into a biofuel economy? Energy Policy, 54: 352 – 359.
[3]
Ohimain, E. I. (2013). The challenges of liquid transportation fuels in Nigeria and the emergence of the Nigerian automotive biofuel programme. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 5 (16): 4058 – 4065.
[4]
Izah, S. C. and Ohimain, E. I. (2015). Bioethanol production from cassava mill effluents supplemented with solid agricultural residues using bakers’ yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 3 (1): 47 – 54.
[5]
Ede, P. N. and Edokpa, D. O. (2015). Regional Air Quality of the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 4: 7-15.
[6]
Ohimain, E. I., Emeti, C. I., Izah, S. C. (2014). Employment and socioeconomic effects of semi-mechanized palm oil mill in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension and Sociology, 3 (3): 206-216.
[7]
Ohimain, E. I. (2010). Petroleum Geomicrobiology. In: Jain, S. K., Khan, A. A., Rain, M. K., (Editors). Geomicrobiology: Biodiversity and Biotechnology. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. Pp. 139 – 174.
[8]
Ohimain, E. I. (2013). Environmental impacts of smallholder ethanol production from cassava feedstock for the replacement of kerosene household cooking fuel in Nigeria. Energy Sources, Part A. 35: 1560 – 1565.
[9]
Ohimain, E. I. (2013). A review of the Nigeria biofuel policy and incentives (2007). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22: 246 – 256.
[10]
Sambo, A. S. (2008). The role of energy in achieving millennium development goal (MDGs). Keynote address at the national engineering technology conference (NETec 2008). Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria held on 1st of April, 2008.
[11]
Fadare, D. A., Bamiro, O. A. and Oni, A. O. (2009). Energy analysis for production of powdered and pelletised organic fertilizer in Nigeria. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4 (4): 75 – 82.
[12]
Aigberua, A. O., Ekubo, A. T., Inengite, A. K. and Izah, S. C. (2017). Assessment of some selected heavy metals and their pollution indices in an oil spill contaminated soil in the Niger Delta: a case of Rumuolukwu community. Biotechnological Research, 3 (1): 11- 19.
[13]
Aigberua, A. O., Ekubo, A. T., Inengite, A. K. and Izah, S. C. (2016). Evaluation of Total Hydrocarbon Content and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in an Oil Spill Contaminated Soil in Rumuolukwu Community in Niger Delta. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 4 (4): 130 – 142.
[14]
Aigberua, A. O., Ekubo, A. T., Inengite, A. K. and Izah, S. C. (2016b). Seasonal variation of nutrient composition in an oil spill contaminated soil: a case of Rumuolukwu, Eneka, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Biotechnological Research, 2 (4): 179-186.
[15]
Donwa, P. A., Mgbame, C. O., Utomwen, O. A. (2015). Gas flaring in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria. International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 1 (1): 28-39.
[16]
Adamu, H. and Umar, B. A. (2013). Occurrence and Chemistry of Co-contamination of Nitrate and Hydrocarbon Pollutants in Gas-Flared Areas of Niger-Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 1 (4): 139-146.
[17]
Amadi, A. N. (2014). Impact of Gas-Flaring on the Quality of Rain Water, Groundwater and Surface Water in Parts of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 2 (3): 114-119.
[18]
Anomohanran, O. (2012). Thermal Effect of Gas Flaring at Ebedei Area of Delta State, Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 13 (2): 555 – 560.
[19]
Iyorakpo, J. and Odibikuma, P. W. (2015). Impact of gas flaring on the built Environment: the case of Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Govt Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 11 (26): 83 – 95.
[20]
Olukoya, O. A. P. (2015). Negative Effects of Gas Flaring On Buildings and Public Health in Oil Producing Communities: The OgbiaCommunity, Bayelsa State Case. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Protection, 2 (5): 52-61.
[21]
Nkwocha, E. E. and Pat-Mbano, E. C. (2010). Effect of Gas Flaring on Buildings in the Oil Producing Rural Communities of River State, Nigeria. African Research Review, 4 (2): 90-102.
[22]
Abua, M. A. and Ashua, S. W. (2015). The Impact of Gas Flaring on Plant Diversity in Ibeno Local Government Area. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 4 (1): 10-17.
[23]
Ubani, E. C. and Onyejekwe, I. M. (2013). Environmental impact analyses of gas flaring in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 4 (2): 246-252.
[24]
Nriagu, J., Udofia, E. A., Ekong, I. and Ebuk, G. (2016). Health Risks Associated with Oil Pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 346; doi: 10.3390/ijerph13030346.
[25]
Egwurugwu, J. N., Nwafor A, Chinko BC, Oluronfemi OJ, Iwuji SC, Nwankpa, P. (2013). Effects of prolonged exposure to gas flares on the lipid profile of humans in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. American Journal of Research Communication, 1 (5): 115-145.
[26]
Egwurugwu, J. N. and Nwafor, A. (2013). Prolonged Exposure to Oil and Gas Flares Ups the Risks for Hypertension. American Journal of Health Research 1 (3): 65-72.
[27]
Egwurugwu, J. N., Nwafor, A., Oluronfemi, O. J., Iwuji, S. C. and Alagwu, E. A. (2013). Impact of Prolonged Exposure to Oil and Gas Flares on Human Renal Functions. International Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 1 (11): 9-16.
[28]
Ismail, O. S. and Umukoro, G. E. (2012). Global Impact of Gas Flaring. Energy and Power Engineering, 4: 290-302.
[29]
Ogbe, E. (2010). Optimization of strategies for natural gas utilization: case study of the Niger Delta. A Thesis presented to the department of petroleum engineering, African University of Science and Technology.
[30]
Otiotio, D. (2013). Gas Flaring Regulation in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Comparative Analysis of Nigeria and Texas Regulations.
[31]
Emam, E. A. (2015). Gas Flaring In Industry: An Overview. Petroleum and Coal, 57 (5): 532-555.
[32]
Soltanieh, M., Zohrabian, A., Gholipour, M. J. and Kalnay, E. (2016). A review of global gas flaring and venting and impact on the environment: Case study of Iran. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 49: 488–509.
[33]
Ajugwo, A. O. (2013). Negative Effects of Gas Flaring: The Nigerian Experience. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 1 (1): 6-8.
[34]
Emoyan, O. O., Akpoborie, I. A. and Akporhonor, E. E. (2008). The Oil and Gas Industry and the Niger Delta: implications for the Environment. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 12 (3): 29 – 37.
[35]
Ishisone, M. (Undated). Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta: the Potential Benefits of its Reduction on the Local Economy and Environment. http://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/es196/projects/2004final/Ishone.pdf, Assessed June 4th, 2016.
[36]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2014). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[37]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2013). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[38]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2012). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[39]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2011). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[40]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2010). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[41]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2009). Annual statistical bulletin. Draft Edition. (Web Version). Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[42]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2008). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. (Web Version). Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[43]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2007). Annual statistical bulletin. 2nd Edition. (Web Version). Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[44]
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) (2006). Annual statistical bulletin. 1st Edition. (Web Version). Corporate planning and development division (CPDD).
[45]
Oniemola, P. K. and Sanusi, G. (2009). The Nigerian biofuel policy and incentives (2007); a need to follow the Brazilian pathway. International Association for Energy Economics, 4th Quarter, pp: 135-139.
[46]
Izah, S. C., Angaye, T. C. N. and Ohimain, E. I. (2015). Climate change: some meteorological indicators and perception of farmers in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. International Journal of Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3 (1): 56 – 60.
[47]
Ojeh, V. N. (2012). Sustainable Development and Gas Flaring Activities: a Case Study of Ebedei Area of Ukwuani LGA, Delta State, Nigeria. Resources and Environment, 2 (4): 169-174.
[48]
Ohimain, E. I. and Izah, S. C. (2013). Gaseous emissions from a semi-mechanized oil palm processing mill in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 4 (1): 15 – 25.
[49]
Ohimain, E. I., Izah, S. C. and Abah, S. O. (2013). Air quality impacts of smallholder oil palm processing in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4: 83-98.
[50]
Izah, S. C., Chakrabarty, N. and Srivastav, A. L. (2016a). A Review on Heavy Metal Concentration in Potable Water Sources in Nigeria: Human Health Effects and Mitigating Measures. Exposure and Health, 8: 285–304.
[51]
Izah, S. C. and Ineyougha, E. R. (2015). A review of the microbial quality of potable water sources in Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Biological and Basic Research, 1 (1): 12 – 19.
[52]
Izah, S. C. and Srivastav, A. L. (2015). Level of arsenic in potable water sources in Nigeria and their potential health impacts: A review. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 3 (1): 15 – 24.
[53]
Agedah, E. C., Ineyougha, E. R., Izah, S. C., and Orutugu, L. A. (2015). Enumeration of total heterotrophic bacteria and some physico-chemical characteristics of surface water used for drinking sources in Wilberforce Island, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 3 (1): 28 – 34.
[54]
Ogamba, E. N., Izah, S. C. and Oribu, T. (2015). Water quality and proximate analysis of Eichhornia crassipes from River Nun, Amassoma Axis, Nigeria. Research Journal of Phytomedicine, 1 (1): 43 – 48.
[55]
Ogamba, E. N., Izah, S. C. and Toikumo, B. P. (2015). Water quality and levels of lead and mercury in Eichhornia crassipes from a tidal creek receiving abattoir effluent, in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Environmental Science, 9 (1): 13 – 25.
[56]
Ogamba, E. N., Seiyaboh, E. I., Izah, S. C., Ogbugo, I. and Demedongha, F. K. (2015c). Water quality, phytochemistry and proximate constituents of Eichhornia crassipes from Kolo creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology, 4 (9): 77 – 84.
[57]
Ogamba, E. N., Ebere, N. and Ekuma, C. G. (2017). Physicochemistry and Ichthyofauna of Ikoli Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Biotechnol Res 3 (2): 43-49.
[58]
Seiyaboh, E. I., Izah, S. C. and Oweibi, S. (2017). Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sediment from Sagbama Creek, Nigeria. Biotechnological Research, 3 (1): 25-28.
[59]
Seiyaboh, E. I., Izah, S. C. and Oweibi, S. (2017). Assessment of Water quality from Sagbama Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Biotechnological Research, 3 (1): 20-24.
[60]
Seiyaboh, E. I., Harry, G. A. and Izah, S. C. (2016). Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Five Fish Species from River Brass, Niger Delta. Biotechnological Research, 2 (4): 187-192.
[61]
Seiyaboh, E. I., Inyang, I. R. and Izah, S. C. (2016). Spatial Variation in Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sediment from Epie Creek, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Environment Management and Public Safety, 5 (5): 100 – 105.
[62]
Seiyaboh, E. I., Inyang, I. R. and Izah, S. C. (2016). Seasonal Variation of Physico-Chemical Quality of Sediment from Ikoli Creek, Niger Delta. International Journal of Innovative Environmental Studies Research, 4 (4): 29-34.
[63]
Oyoroko, E. and Ogamba, E. N. (2017). Effects of detergent containing linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on behavioural response of Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Clarias gariepinus and Heteroclarias. Biotechnol. Res. 3 (3): 55-58.
[64]
Dami, A., Ayuba, H. K. and Amukali, O. (2012). Effects of Gas Flaring and Oil Spillage on Rainwater Collected for Drinking in Okpai and Beneku, Delta State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Science Geography & Environmental GeoScience, 12 (13): 25- 29.
[65]
Dami, A., Ayuba, H. K. and Amukali, O. (2013). Ground water pollution in Okpai and Beneku, Ndokwa east local government area, delta state, Nigeria. E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management, 4 (1): 0171-0179.
[66]
Nwankwo, C. N. and Ogagarue, D. O. (2011). Effects of gas flaring on surface and ground waters in Delta State Nigeria. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 3 (5): 131-136.
[67]
Emumejaye, K. (2012). Effects of Gas Flaring On Surface and Ground Water in Irri Town and Environs, Niger-Delta, Nigeria. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology, 1 (5): 29-33.
[68]
Ezenwaji, E. E., Okoye, A. C. and Otti, V. I. (2013). Effects of gas flaring on rainwater quality in Bayelsa State, Eastern Niger-Delta region, Nigeria. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 5 (6): 97-105.
[69]
Efe, S. I. (2011). Spatial Variation of Acid Rain and its Ecological Effect in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Environmental Management Conference, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, pp 381 – 396.
[70]
Ogunkoya, O. O. and Efi, E. J. (2003). Rainfall quality and sources of rainwater acidity in Warri area of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 39 (2): 125-130.
[71]
Olobaniyi, S. B.; Ogban, F. E.; Ejechi, B. O. and Ugbe, F. C. (2007), Quality of Groundwater in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of environmental Hydrology, 15: 1-9.
[72]
Efe, S. I. and Mogborukor J. O. A. (2008). Acid rain in the Niger Delta region: Implication on Water Resource Crises, Proceedings, International Conference on the Nigerian State, Oil industry and the Niger Delta, 11-13th March, 2008, Glory land Cultural Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
[73]
Achi, C. (2003). Hydrocarbon exploitation, environmental degradation and poverty: the Niger Delta experience. Diffuse Pollution Conference, Dublin 2003 2B Policy / Socio-Economics.
[74]
Ozabor, F. and Obisesan, A. (2015). Gas Flaring: Impacts on Temperature, Agriculture and the People of Ebedei in Delta State Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Society, 4 (2): 5-12.
[75]
Lawanson, A. O., lmevbore, A. M. A. and Fanimokun, V. O. (Undated). The Effects of Waste-Gas Flares on the Surrounding Cassava Plantations in the Niger Delta Regions of Nigeria. http://www.istrc.org/images/Documents/Symposiums/Sixth/6th_symposium_proceedings_0041_section_3_239.pdf. Accessed September 21st, 2016.
[76]
Adewale, O. O. and Mustapha, U. (2015). The Impact of Gas Flaring in Nigeria. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society, 3 (2): 40-50.
[77]
Jacobson, J. S. (1984). Effect of Acidic Aerosol, fog, Mist and Rain on Crops and Trees, Phill. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 49: 327-338.
[78]
Neufeld, H. S., Jernstedt, J. A. and Haines, B. L. (1985). Direct Foliar Effects of Simulated Acid Rain, I. Damage, Growth and Gas Exchange New Phytologist, 99 (3): 389-405.
[79]
Efe, S. I. (2010). Spatial variation in acid and some heavy metal composition of rainwater harvesting in the oil producing region of Nigeria. Natural Hazard, DOI 10.1007/s11069-010-9526-2.
[80]
Epidi, J. O, Izah, S. C. and Ohimain, E. I., Epidi, T. T, (2016). Phytochemical, antibacterial and synergistic potency of tissues of Vitex grandifolia. Biotechnological Research, 2 (2): 69-76.
[81]
Epidi, J. O., Izah, S. C. and Ohimain, E. I. (2016). Antibacterial and Synergistic Efficacy of Extracts of Alstonia boonei Tissues. British Journal of Applied Research, 1 (1): 0021-0026.
[82]
Ifemeje, J. C. (2015). Effect of Gas Flaring on the Anti-nutritional Composition of Four Green Leafy Vegetables from Eleme in Rivers State, Nigeria. Columbia International Publishing International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Solutions, 3 (1): 31-37.
[83]
Ujowundu, C. O., Nwaogu, L. A., Ujowundu, F. N. and Belonwu, D. C. (2013). Effect of Gas Flaring on the Phytochemical and Nutritional Composition of Treculia Africana and Vigna subterranean, British Biotechnology Journal, 3 (3): 293-304.
[84]
Anacletus, F., Adisa, O. I. and Uwakwe, A. (2014). Effect of Gas Flaring on Some Phytochemicals and Trace Metals of Fluted Pumpkin (Telferia occidentalis). Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4 (16): 1 – 5.
[85]
Izah, S. C., Angaye, T. C. N. and Ohimain, E. I. (2016). Environmental Impacts of Oil palm processing in Nigeria. Biotechnological Research, 2 (3): 132-141.
[86]
Okeke, P. N. and Okpala C. Q. (2014). Effects of gas flaring on selected arable soil quality indicators in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Sky Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 3 (1): 001 – 005.
[87]
Olisemauche, O. O. and Avwerosuoghene, O. P. (2015). The effect of gas flaring on Agricultural production of Okpai, Ndukwa East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. Standard Scientific Research and Essays, 3 (9): 266-272.
[88]
Odjugo, P. A. O. and Osemwenkhae, E. J. (2009). Natural gas flaring affects microclimate and reduces maize (Zea mays) yield. Int. J. Agri. Biol., 11: 408─412.
[89]
Odjugo, P. A. O. (2007). Some Effects of Gas Flaring on the Microclimate of Yam and Cassava Production in Erhorike and Environs. Delta State, Nigeria. Nigerian Geograhical J. 5: 43-54.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931