Used Cooking Oils as a Source Material for Biodiesel Production: Case Study for Kitwe Town, Zambia
International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment
Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2018, Pages: 32-37
Received: Aug. 10, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 26, 2018;
Published: Oct. 19, 2018
Views 602 Downloads 57
Mwema Wanjiya, Chemical Engineering Department, School of Mines and Mineral Sciences, The Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Misozi Makangila, Environmental Engineering Department, School of Mines and Mineral Sciences, The Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Lloyd Mukosha, Chemical Engineering Department, School of Mines and Mineral Sciences, The Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
The escalating prices on the world market, depreciation of fossils fuel reserves and environmental concerns has lead to the quest for the alternatives sustainable renewable energy sources. The past decades have witnessed innovations developed to produce biodiesels from various sources such as Groundnuts, Soya beans, Palm oils, Canola, Sunflower, Castor nuts and Jatropha plants and animal fats. However, most of these raw materials are competitive as food sources in human food chain. This research assesses the use of Used Cooking Oils (UCOs) from food outlets in Kitwe Town, Zambia as source for biodiesel production. Of equal importance is the assessment of environmental impact of the current waste management practices employed in disposal of UCOs. Data was obtained by administering questionnaires to various food outlets. The study revealed that approximately 8500 L/year of UCO would be generated from the sampled area. Fast food outlets accounted for 76% of the overall UCOs production in the sampled area. It was found that UCOs were mainly disposed through drainage into Municipal Sewers with the possibility of fatberg generation. Reuse of the UCO by the correspondents was a common practice and any leftover was disposed into the environment. The results of this study indicated the UCOs could be a major source material for biodiesel production.
Used Cooking Oils as a Source Material for Biodiesel Production: Case Study for Kitwe Town, Zambia, International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2018, pp. 32-37.
A. E Atabani, T. M. I. Mahlia, H. H. Masjuki, I. A. Badruddin, H. W. Yussofu, W. T. Chong and K. T. Lee, (2013). A comparative evaluation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non edible oils and study on effect of biodiesel blending. Journalhomepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/energy. Energy 58 (2013) 296-304.
N. Lamba, S. Adhikari, J. M. Modak and Madras, (2018). Catalytic synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from Madhuca indica oil from supercritical menthanol. Energy Conversion and Management. Vol. 173, page 412-42.
A. Carlos, F. Guerrero, G. R. Andres and E. S. Fabio (2011). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. National University of Colombia, Colombia.
H. Fukuda, A. Kondo and H. Noda, (2001). Biodiesel Fuel production by transesterfication of oils. J. Biosci Bioeng 92 (5): 405-416.
T. M. Y. Khan, A. E Atabani, I. A Badruddin, A. Badarin, M. S Khayoon, S. Triwahyono, (2014). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 37, page 840 – 851. Journalhomepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/rser.
Global Report on Food Crises 2018- World, https://reliefweb.Int/report/global-report-food-crises-2018.
L. Yang, M. Takase, M. Zhang, T. Zhao, X. Wu (2014). Potential non-edible oil feedstocks for biodiesel production in Africa: A survey. Renewable and Sustainable Reviews. Vol. 38, pages 461- 477.
N.H. Abdullah, S. H. Hasan, N. R. M Yusoff (2013). International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 1. 94 -99.
M. Arbelaez, M. Rivera, (2007). Diseno Conceptual de un para la Obtencion de bodiesel a partir de algunos aceites vegetales Colombianos. Unversidad Eafit. Medellin.
Fuel prices increased. https://www.znbc.co.zm/fuel-prices-increased/ (Accessed on 19/03/18).
A. Radich (2006). Biodiesel performance, costs and use. US Energy Information Administration.
N. Banerjee, R. Ramakrishrian, T. Jash (2014). Biodiesel Production from Vegetable oil collected from shops selling fritters in Kolkata. 4th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 2013.
H. T. Yie M. A. Abdullah, C. Nolasco-Hipolito, H. Taufiq-Yap (2015). Waste ostrich- and chicken-eggshells as heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production from Waste cooking oil: Catalyst characterization and biodiesel yield performance. Applied Energy. 58 -70.
I. Boumesbah, Z. Hachaïchi-Sadouk and A. Tazerouti (2014). Biodiesel production from waste frying oil and determination of fuel properties. Revue des Energies Renouvelables SIENR’14 Ghardaïa 109 – 113 109.
Kitwe City Council. Accessed: http://www.kcc.gov.zm/about-kitwe/.
Energy Regulation Board, 2012. Report on Status of the Petroleum Industry.
A. Karmakar, S Karmakar and S. Mukherjee S (2010). Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 2010; 101:7201–7210.
AV. Tomasevic and SS. Siler-Marinkovic (2003). Methanolysis of used frying oil. Fuel Process Technology 2003; 81:1–6.
R. G. Moreira, M. E Castell-Perez, and M. A Barrufet, M. A. (1999). Deep-Fat Frying: Fundamentals and Applications. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD.
E. Choe and D. B. Min, ( 2007). Chemistry of Deep-Fat Frying Oils. Journal of Food Science, 72: R77–R86. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00352.x.
N. I. Acquah Y. G. Obeng Y. G, and E. Mensah (2016). Repetitive Use of Vegetable Cooking Oil and effect on Physico-Chemical Properties – Case of frying with Redfish (Lutjanus fulgens). Science and Technology 6(1): 8 – 14: DOI: 10. 5923/j.Scit. 20160601.02.
A. Romero, S. Bastida, and F. J. Sanchez-Muniz, (2006). Cyclic fatty acid monomer formation in domestic frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high oleic acid sunflower oil without oil replenishment. Food and Chemical Toxicology44: 1674-1681.
A. Lapointe, C. Couillard and S. Lemieux (2006). Effects of dietary factors on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein particles. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 17(10): 645-58.
MJ. Williams, W. H. Sutherland, M. P. McCormick, S. A. de Jong, R. J. Walker, and G. T. Wilkins, (1999). Impaired endothelial function following a meal rich in used cooking fat.
C. M. Yang, A. A. Grey, M. C. Archer, W. R Bruce (1998). Rapid quantitation of thermal oxidation products in fats and oils by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Nutr Cancer, 30(1): 64-68.
D. Gambelli, F. Alberti, F. Solfacelli, D. Vairo and R. Zanoli, (2017). Third generating algae biofuels in Italy by 2030 A scenario using Bayesian networks.