High Altitude as an Environmental Economic Good: Estimating Its Economic Value Using Willingness to Incur Costs by Athletes
International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2020, Pages: 24-31
Received: Aug. 26, 2019;
Accepted: Oct. 21, 2019;
Published: Jun. 9, 2020
Views 214 Downloads 52
Silah Misoi, Department of Applied Environmental Social Science (Environmental Economics), University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya
Andrew Kiptum, Department of Applied Environmental Social Science (Environmental Economics), University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya
High altitude training provides acclimatization to athletes by enhancing endurance; however, this environmental service has remained unaccounted and un-priced. Therefore, this study sought to estimate economic value of high altitude services to athletes using travel cost valuation approach. This study was carried out at Iten Township in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. Systematic simple random sampling technique was used in administering 223 structured questionnaires to respondents. Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version-20) were used for data analysis. Findings from the study showed that athletes incurred estimated cost of about $9.59 per day to train at high altitude, while high altitude attributes such as experience, safety and altitude acclimatization were highly ranked as motivating factors by athletes to train in the study area. Results from statistical tests revealed that experience, age of athletes, safety and altitude effects were significantly difference in influencing athletes’ willingness to incur extra cost for altitude acclimatization. Analysis from logit model showed that experience, age of athletes, safety and altitude effects had high probability to influence athletes to train at high altitude areas. However, stochastic variable in the model showed significant difference in influencing willingness to incur cost by athletes while training at high altitude. This error term explains unobserved variables in the model which were beyond the scope of this study. In conclusion athletes are willing to incur travelling and living costs to train at high altitude areas in order to gain incremental altitude training effects as affirmed by bootstrap hypothesis testing results. Significant of this study will inform policy and decision makers on critical information while they develop sustainable infrastructure, legislation and policies for sports industry.
High Altitude as an Environmental Economic Good: Estimating Its Economic Value Using Willingness to Incur Costs by Athletes, International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2020, pp. 24-31.
Pagiola, S. (2009). Payment for Environmental Services: An Introduction. Presentation at Environment Department. World Bank. Washington. http://www.siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEEI/Resources/IntroToPES.pdf.
Barbier E., S. Hacker, C. Kennedy (2011). The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecol Monogram 81 (2): 169–193. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1890/10-1510.1.
Pant K. P., Rasul, G., Chetri, N., Rai, K. R. and Sharma, E. (2012). Value of forest ecosystem: a quantitative estimation from the Kangchenjunga Landscape in Eastern Nepal. Kathmandu. ICIMOD working paper 2012/5.http://www.fao.org/library/library-home/en/.
Kerr, M. J., Vardhan, M., & Jindal, R. (2014). Incentives, Conditionality and Collective Action in Payment for Environmental Services. International Journal of the Commons, 595-616. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.438.
Rideout A., N. Joshi and K. Viergever (2013). Making predictions of mangrove deforestation: a comparison of two methods in Kenya. Glob Chang Biol 19: 3493–501 SCBD (2009) Biodiversity for development and poverty alleviation. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12176.
Derby, R., and K. de Weber (2010). The athletes and High Altitude. Current Sports Medicine Report (American College of Sports Medicine), 9 (2): 79-85.
Hacket P. H. and R. C. Roach (2012). High-altitude medicine and physiology. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby.
Vargas-Pinilla and Olga-Cecilia (2014). Exercises and Training at Altitude: Physiological Effects and Protocols. S. Rev. Cienc. Salud. Vol 12 (1): 107-122. Doi: dx.doi.org/10.12804/revesalud12.1.2014.0710.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00835.x.
Barjarmovic, E.; Habul, C.; Talovic, M.; Mekic, A.; Narcotic N. and S. Likic (2018). Effects of 8-Week Muscular Endurance Training with Body Weight in the Case of Recreational Athletes. Homosporticus 20 (1): 47-51.
Zhang G, Zhou S. M, Yuan C, Tian H. J, Li P, and Y. Q Gao (2013). The effects of short-term and long-term exposure to high altitude hypoxic environment on neurobehavioral function. Journal of High Altitude Medical Biology. 14: 338-341.
Khodaee, M., Grothe Heather L., Seyfert Jonathan H. and Karin Van Baak (2016). Primary Care: Athletes at High Altitude Journal of Sports Health Vol 8 (2): 126-132. DOI: 10.1177/1941738116630948.
Murali, Ranjini; Redpath, Steve and Mishra, Charudutt (2017). The value of Ecosytem Services in the High Altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya Ecosystem Services 28: 115-123.
Howley, P., C. Buckley, O. Donoghue and M. Ryan (2015) Explaining the economic “irrationality” of farmers land use behaviour. The role of productivity, attitudes and non pecuniary benefits. Ecological Economics Journal 2015: 186-193.
Kenya Meteorological Department, 2013. The outlook for the March-April-May (MAM) 2013 “long-Rains” season in Kenya and Review of the performance of the October-December 2012 “Short Rains” Seasons as well as the weather during January-February 2013. Report from Government of Kenya [online], [cited 14 February 2018]. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/The%20outlook%20for%20the%20March-April-May%20%28MAM%29%202013%20%E2%80%9CLong-Rains%E2%80%9D%20season%20in%20Kenya.pdf.
Kothari. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods & Technology (2nd ed.). New Dheli, India: New Age International Publishers.
Campbell A. D., McIntosh S. E., Nyberg A., Powell A. P., Schoene R. B. and P. Hackett (2015). Risk stratification for athletes and adventurers in high altitude environment: recommendation for pre-participation evaluation. Clinical Journal Sports Medicine 25: 404-411.
Bloch K. E., Buenzli J. C., Latshang T. D and S. Ultrich (2015). Sleep at high altitude: guesses and facts. Journal of Applied Physiology (1985). 119: 1466-1480.
Layton Robert and Wallace G. (2006). Is Culture a Commodity? pp: 275-285. Doi: 10.1017/cb09780511817656.004.
Choi, Andy; Ritchie, Brent; Papandrea, Franco and Bennet, Jeff (2010) Economic Valuation of Cultural Heritage Sites: A Choice Modelling Approach. Tourism Management Vol 31 (2): 213-220. Doi: 10.1016/j.tourism.2009.02.014.
Ting, Chung-Te; Hsieh, Chi-Ming, Chang, Hsiao-Ping and Chen Han-Shen (2019). Environmental Consciousness and Green Customer Behaviour: the moderating Roles of Incentives Mechanisms. Sustainability 11 (819): 2-16 Doi: 10.3390/su11030819.
Bias, P. V.; Smith, Patrick L. and Jansson, Hanna (2012) In Defense of Rationality Assumption; Conference Paper, July 2012. pp: 1-16.
Avery, Kelly and Freeman, Laura (2017). Statistical Techniques for Modelling and Simulation Validation. Simulation Innovation Workshop 2017. IDA.