Please enter verification code
Farming System Characterization and Analysis of East Wollega Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia
International Journal of Management and Fuzzy Systems
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 14-28
Received: May 30, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 15, 2020; Published: Aug. 4, 2020
Views 288      Downloads 58
Kifle Degefa, Bako Agricultural Research Center, Bako, Ethiopia
Getachew Biru, Bako Agricultural Research Center, Bako, Ethiopia
Galmessa Abebe, Bako Agricultural Research Center, Bako, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study was characterizing and analyze the existing farming system and identify the production and marketing constraints of the East Wollega zone with cross-sectional data of 156 sample respondents. The farming system of the study area is characterized as mixed farming systems with 56.21% and 28.44% contribution of crop and livestock, respectively for livelihood activities. The survey result shows that low productivity, shortage/lack of improved varieties, weed infestation, high cost of inputs was identified as main important constraints in crop production while high transaction cost, lack of marketing linkage, low price of output and shortage of market information were reported as main constraints in crop marketing. Disease, feed shortage, grazing land shortage, and lack of improved breed were identified as main important constraints in livestock production whereas high transaction cost, low price output, shortage of market information, unorganized marketing system, and lack of market linkage were reported as main livestock marketing constraints. Besides, soil erosion, soil fertility decline, waterlogging, soil acidity, and termite were reported as the main important constraints in natural resources. To improving crop and livestock productivity access improved varieties and breed, capacitate farmers’ awareness on the disease, minimizes transaction cost, focus on the high-value crops, expanding soil and water conservation, strengthening market information and linkage where must the urgent concentration for interventions.
Crop, Farming System, East Wollega, Livestock and Natural Resource
To cite this article
Kifle Degefa, Getachew Biru, Galmessa Abebe, Farming System Characterization and Analysis of East Wollega Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, International Journal of Management and Fuzzy Systems. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 14-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmfs.20200602.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Asrat, G. A, Yoseph, M. G., and Habtemariam, K. (2018). Integrating crop and livestock in smallholder production systems for food security and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research; 13 (25): 1272-1282.
Belay, D., Azage, T., and Hegde, B. P. (2012). Smallholder Livestock Production System in Dandi District, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria; 8 (5): 472-479.
EWZFDOS (East Wollega Zone Finance Development Office and Socio-economics, (2018). Zonal Abstract Report. Nekemte.
Kindu, A., Duncan, A., Valbuena, D., Gérard, B., Dagnachew, L., Mesfin, B., and Gedion J. (2014). Intensification of crop-livestock farming system in East Africa: A comparison on selected sites in the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya, In B. Vanlauwe et al. (eds.), Challenges and Opportunities for Agricultural Intensification of the Humid Highland Systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, XII, 404.
Moraine, M., Duru, M., Nicholas, P, Leterme, P., and Therond, O. (2014). Farming system design for innovative crop–livestock integration in Europe. Animal., 8 (8): 1204–2017.
Asante, B. O., Villano, R. A., Patrick, I. W., and Battese, G. E. (2017). Determinants of farm diversification in integrated crop–livestock farming systems in Ghana. Renew Agric Food Syst.
Mesay, Y., Bedada, B., and Teklemedihin, T. (2013). Enhancing the productivity of livestock production in highland of Ethiopia: Implication for improved on‐farm feeding strategies and utilization. International Journal of Livestock Production; 1 (1): 015-029.
Alemayehu, S., Dorosh, P., and Sinafikeh A. (2011). Crop production in Ethiopia: regional patterns and trends. International Food Policy Research Institute, Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II (ESSP II), Working Paper No. 16.
Garnett, T., Appleby, M. C., Balmford, A., Bateman, I. J., Benton, T. G., Bloomer, P., Burlingame, B., Dawkins, M., Dolan, L., Fraser, D., Herrero, M., Hoffmann, I., Smith, P., Thornton, P. K., Toulmin C., Vermeulen S. J., and Godfray H. C. J. (2013). Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: Premises and Policies. Science; 341 (6141): 33-34.
Dennis, G., John, D., and Jean-Mark, B. (2012). Understanding African Farming Systems Science and Policy Implications. Food security in Africa: Bridging Research and practice Sydney.
FAO, (2016). FAOSTAT. Retrieved 9 August 2016 from
Dixon, J., Gulliver, A., and Gibbon, D. (2001). Farming systems and poverty: Improving farmers’ livelihoods in a changing world. FAO, Rome.
World Bank and AfDB, (2017). The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011. World Economic Forum, Geneva.
Efa, G. T. and Bizualem, A. G. (2017). Sources of Income Inequality among Farm Households in Ethiopia. Using Gini Coefficient Approach. American Based Research Journal, 6 (8).
Etea, B. G., Zhou, D., Abebe, K. A., and Sedebo, D. A. (2019). Household Income Diversification and Food Security: Evidence from Rural and Semi-Urban Areas in Ethiopia. Sustainability, 11: 3232.
Bereket, K. (2008). Land Reform, Distribution of Land and Institutions in Rural Ethiopia: Analysis of Inequality with Dirty Data. Journal of African Economies; 17 (4): 550-577.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency), 2018. National Statistics (Abstract). Addis Ababa.
Smalling, E. M. A., Lesschen, J. P., Beek, C. L., Jager, D. A., Stoorvogel, J. J., Batjes, N. H. and Fresco, L. O. (2012). Where do we stand 20 years after the assessment of soil nutrient balances in Sub-Saharan Africa, 499–537 in World soil resources and food security/, Lal R., Stewart B. A., Padstow, Great Britain: CRC Press (Advances in Soil Science).
Fischer, T., Byerlee, D., and Edmeades, G. O. (2014). Crop yields and global food security: will yield increase continue to feed the world. ACIAR Monograph. ACIAR, Canberra.
Cavane, E. (2007). Farmers’ attitudes and adoption of improved maize varieties and chemical fertilizers in the Manica District, Mozambique. PhD. Dissertation. Michigan State University.
Tewodros, A., and Tefaye, A. (2017). Agricultural Knowledge and Technology Transfer Systems in the Southern Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research; 13 (14): 682-690.
Roxburgh, C. W. and Rodriguez D., (2016). Ex-ante analysis of opportunities for the sustainable intensification of maize production in Mozambique. Agricultural Systems; 142: 9–22.
Jayne, T. S., Mather, D., and Mghenyi, E. (2010). Principal Challenges confronting household agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development; 38, 1384–1398.
Hörbe, T. A. N., Amado, T. J. C., Ferreira, A. O., and Alba P. J. (2013). Optimization of corn plant population according to management zones in Southern Brazil. Precision Agriculture; 14: 450–465.
Pratley, J. E. ed. (2003). Principles of field crop production, 4th ed. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Tittonell, P., Leffelaar, P. A., Vanlauwe, B., van Wijk, M. T. and Giller, K. E. (2006). Exploring diversity of crop and soil management within household African farms: A dynamic model for simulation of N balances and use efficiencies at field scale. Agricultural Systems; 91: 71–101.
Hirel, B., Tétu, T., Lea, P. J., and Dubois, F. (2011). Improving nitrogen use efficiency in crops for sustainable agriculture. Sustainability, 3: 1452–1485.
Cassman, K. G., Dobermann, A., and Walters, D. T. (2002). Agroecosystems, nitrogen-use efficiency, and nitrogen management. Ambio, 31: 132–140.
Dimes, J., Rodriguez, D., and Potgieter, P. (2015). Raising productivity of maize-based cropping systems in eastern and southern Africa: Step-wise intensification options, 93–110 in ‘Crop physiology’, ed. by V. O. Sadras and D. Calderini. Academic Press, Oxford.
Kifle, D., Getachew, B., and Galmessa, A. (2018). I9puts-outputs Marketing System Efficiencies of Maize and Tomato Production of Bako Tibe and Guto Gida Districts of West Shewa and East Wollega Zones, Ethiopia. Dagnachew et al. (eds.), 2019. Oromia Agricultural research institute workshop proceeding on Adaptation and Generation of Agricultural Technologies, 26-29 June 2019, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Asrat, S., Yesuf, M., Carlsson, F., and Wale, E. (2010). Farmers’ preferences for crop variety traits: Lessons for on-farm conservation and technology adoption. Ecological Economics, 69: 2394–2401.
Witcombe, J. R., Joshi, K. D., Sthapit, B. R., and Virk, D. S. (2011). Impact of introduction of modern varieties on crop diversity. In Agrobiodiversity Management for Food Security, eds Wood D, Lenné JM (CABI, Wallingford), pp 87–98.
Alemu, D. (2011). Farmer-based seed multiplication in the Ethiopian system: Approaches, priorities and performance. Future Agricultures Working Paper 036.
Ayana, A., G. Borman, A. Subedi, F. Abay, H. Mohammed, K. Nefo, N. Dechassa, and T. Dessalegn. 2013. Integrated seed sector development in Ethiopia: Local seed business development as an entrepreneurial model for community-based seed production in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ICRISAT.
Mhlanga, B., Cheesman, S., Maasdorp, B., Muoni, T., Mabasa, S., and Mangosho, E. (2015). Weed community responses to rotations with cover crops in maize-based conservation agriculture systems of Zimbabwe. Crop Protection; 69: 1–8.
Mkonda Y. M. and He, X. (2016). Production Trends of Food Crops: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects to Improve Tanzanian Rural Livelihoods. Natural Resources and Conservation; 4 (4): 51-59.
Umar, B. B. (2016). Seasonal Challenges and Opportunities for Smallholder Farmers in a Mining District of Zambia. Afr. J. Agric. Res.; 11 (13).
Kiros, G. and Ashenafi, K. (2018). Challenges and Opportunities of Genetically Modified Crops Production; Future Perspectives in Ethiopia, Review. The Open Agriculture Journal; 12: 240-250.
Denning, G., Kabambe, P., Sanchez, P., Malik, A., Flor, R., and Harawa, R. (2009). Input subsidies to improve household maize productivity in Malawi: toward an African Green Revolution (Essay). PLoS Biology; 7: e1000023.
Stifel, D. and Minten, B. (2008). Isolation and agricultural productivity. Agricultural Economics 39, 1–15. Stoorvogel J. J. and Smaling E. M. A. 1990. Assessment of soil nutrient depletion in sub-Saharan Africa: 1983–2000. Wageningen University, Wageningen.
Frelat, R., Lopez-Ridaura, S., Giller, K. E., Herrero, M., Douxchamps, S., and Djurfeldt, A. A. (2015). Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; 113: 458–463.
Bezabih, E., Afari-Sefa, V., Fikadu, F. D., Amsalu, A., and Tesfaye, B. (2015) Characterization and assessment of vegetable production and marketing systems in the humid tropics of Ethiopia. Q. J. Inter. Agric. 2: 163-187.
Djurfeldt, A. A. and Djurfeldt, G. (2013). Structural transformation and African households: Drivers of mobility within and between the farm and non-farm sectors for eight countries. Oxford Development Studies 41, 281–306.
Amede, T., Descheemaeker, K., Everisto, M., Peden, D., Breugel, P. van, Awulachew, S. B., and Haileslassie A. (2011). Livestock-water productivity in the Nile Basin: Solutions for emerging challenges. In: A. M. Melesse (Ed.), Nile River Basin: Hydrology, climate and water use (pp. 297–320). New York: Springer Science plus Business Media B. V.
Behnke, R. and Fitaweke, M. (2011). The contribution of livestock to the Ethiopian economy – Part II. IGAD Livestock Policy Initiative (LPI). Working Paper No. 02-11. Odessa Centre, Great Wolford, United Kingdom, 43p.
Franke, A. C., Berkhout, E. D., Iwuafor, ENO., Nziguheba, G., Dercon, G., Vandeplas, I., and Diels, J. (2010a). Does crop-livestock interaction lead to improved crop production in the savanna of West Africa? Exp Agric; 46 (4): 439–455.
Harald, S., Paolo, C., Marco, D., Jose, LG-Mortos, David, S., and Loannis, S. A. (2014). Development of the EMAS Sectoral Reference Documents on Best Environmental Management Practice: JRC scientific & policy report. doi: 10.2791/43526.
Zewdie, W. and Yoseph, M. (2014). Feed resources availability and livestock production in the central rift valley of Ethiopia. International Journal of Livestock Production; 5 (2): 30-35.
Getahun, B. and Tegene, N. (218). Feed Resource Availability and their Nutrient Contribution for livestock Evaluated Using Feed Assessment Tool (FEAST) in Burie Zuria District, North Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J.; 17 (3): 556022.
Belay, D., Getachew, E., Azage, T., and Hegde, B. H. (2013). Farmers’ perceived livestock production constraints in Ginchi watershed area: Result of participatory rural appraisal. International Journal of Livestock Production; 4 (8): 128-134.
Samuel, M. (2014). Livestock Production Constrains Priorities and its Determinant Factors in Mixed Farming System of Southern Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences; 10 (4): 169-177.
Emana, M. M., Ashenafi, M., and Getahun, A. (2017). Opportunity and Constraints of Livestock Feed Resources in Abol and Lare Districts of Gambella Region, Ethiopia. Nutrition and Food Science International Journal; 3 (4): 555620.
Ayele, S., Assegid, W., Jabbar, M. A., Ahmed, M. M., and Belachew, H. (2003). Livestock marketing in Ethiopia: A review of structure, performance and development initiatives. Socio-economics and Policy Research Working Paper 52. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 35 pp.
Negassa, A., Shahidur, R., and Gebremedhin, B. (2011) Livestock Production and Marketing in Ethiopia. Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, ESSP II Working Paper, pp: 26-35.
Bekele, M., Mengistu, A. and Tamir, B. (2017). Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system. Animal, 11 (10): 1852–1860.
Alemayehu, W. and Abera, A. (2017). Assessment of beekeeping production system and constraints in Sude Woreda, Arsi Zone Oromia Ethiopia. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry; 9 (12): 109-114.
Kenesa, T. (2018). Status of Beekeeping in Ethiopia- A Review. Dairy and Vet Sci J.; 8 (4): 555743.
Taye, B. and Marco, V. (2014). Assessment of constraints and opportunities of honey production in Wonchi District South West Shewa Zone of Oromia, Ethiopia. American Journal of Research Communication; 2 (10): 342-353.
Birhanu, T. A. (2016). Constraints and Opportunities of Honeybee Production and Honey Marketing Systems: A Case of Guji and Borena Zone of Oromia State”. EC Agriculture; 3 (3): 635-645.
Sahle, H., Enbiyale G., and Negash, A. (2018). Assessment of honey production system, constraints and opportunities in Ethiopia. Pharm Pharmacol Int J.; 6 (1): 42-47.
Tsegamariam, D. and Tadele, A. (2019). Natural Resource Use, Misuse, Strategy, Policy to Regeneration and Conservation in Ethiopia. In Case of Soil and Water. Sci J Biol & Life Sci.; 1 (1): SJBLS. MS. ID. 000501.
Gebru, B. M., Wang, S. W., Kim, S. J., and Lee, W.-K. (2019) Socio-Ecological Niche and Factors Affecting Agroforestry Practice Adoption in Different Agro-ecologies of Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Sustainability, 11, 3729.
Hurni, H, Berhe, W. A, Chadhokar, P, Daniel, D, Gete, Z, Grunder, M, and Kassaye, G. (2016). Soil and Water Conservation in Ethiopia: Guidelines for Development Agents. Second revised edition. Bern, Switzerland: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, with Bern Open Publishing (BOP). 134 pp.
Tsegaye, M. and Abiy, G. M. (2014). Review on Overall Status of Soil and Water Conservation System and Its Constraints in Different Agro Ecology of Southern Ethiopia Genene. Journal of Natural Sciences Research; 4 (7): 59-69.
Dorosh, P. and Rashid, S. (Eds.). (2013). Food and agriculture in Ethiopia: Progress and policy challenges. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Headey, D., Dereje, M. and Taffesse, A. S. (2014). Land constraints and agricultural intensification in Ethiopia: A village-level analysis of high-potential areas. Food policy; 48: 129-141.
Berhanu, G., Hoe, K. D., and Azage, T. (2006). Commercialization of Ethiopian agriculture: Extension service from input supplier to knowledge broker and facilitator. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian farmers’ project working paper 1. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 36p.
Melesse, B. (2018). A Review on Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural New Technologies in Ethiopia. J Agri Sci Food Res; 9 (3): 226.
Manfre, C. and Nordehn, C. (2013). Exploring the promise of information and communication technologies for women farmers in Kenya. Cultural practice, LLC, MEAS Case Study, 4.
Ataklite, B. (2016). Agricultural Transformation in Ethiopia: State Policy and Smallholder Farming:
Matsumoto T and Yamano T. (2011). The Impacts of Fertilizer Credit on Crop Production and Income in Ethiopia. In Emerging Development of Agriculture in East Africa (pp. 59-72). Springer, Dordrecht.
Awotide, B. A., Abdoulaye, T., Alene, A. D., and Manyong, V. M. (2015). Impact of Access to Credit on Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Nigeria. DOI: 10.22004/ag.ecom.2069.
Peter, N., Shedrack, W. and John, H. (2015). First Mile Transport Challenges for Smallholder Tomato Farmers, Kilolo District Tanzania. IFRTD, Kenya.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186