Global Solar Radiation Models: A Review
Journal of Photonic Materials and Technology
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 26-32
Received: Jan. 25, 2018; Accepted: Feb. 11, 2018; Published: Mar. 15, 2018
Views 1292      Downloads 170
Muhammad Jamilu Ya’u, Mechanical Engineering Department, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Muhammad Abdullahi Gele, Sokoto Energy Research Center, Service Unit, Sokoto, Nigeria
Yerima Yusif Ali, Mechanical Engineering Department, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Abdulkarim Mika’il Alhaji, Department of Physics, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The Sun is a larger planent which emits light and heat to the Earth for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists and hydrologists for many applications. In the past, several empirical correlations have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. The main objective of this study is to review the global solar radiation models available in the literature. There are several formulae which relate global radiation to other climatic parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity and maximum temperature. In this paper, the models are classified into three viz: models based on ratio (H/Ho), non-linear models and models based on empirical coefficients ‘a’ and ‘b’.
Empirical Coefficients, Maximum Temperature, Solar Radiation, Sunshine Hours
To cite this article
Muhammad Jamilu Ya’u, Muhammad Abdullahi Gele, Yerima Yusif Ali, Abdulkarim Mika’il Alhaji, Global Solar Radiation Models: A Review, Journal of Photonic Materials and Technology. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018, pp. 26-32. doi: 10.11648/j.jmpt.20180401.15
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Chegaar, M. and Chibani, A. (2000), ‘A Simple Method for Computing Global Solar Radiation’, Rev. Energ. Ren: Chemss, pp 111–115.
Augustine C. and Nnabuchi M.N (2010), ‘Analysis of Some Meteorological Data for Some Selected Cities in the Eastern and Southern Zone of Nigeria’, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4(2), pp 92–99.
A. A Sabziparvar (2008), ‘A Simple Formula for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in Central Deserts of Iran’ Renewable Energy, Volume33, pp 1002-1010.
Ahmad M.S.H. (2010). Factors affecting the incident radiation sun on the surface of earth. Unpublished MSc thesis of department of physics, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Duffie J.A. and Beckman W.A. (1991). Solar engineering of thermal processes. NewYork: Wiley.
Mahgoub Z.H. (1997). Renewable Energy System. Unpublished MSc thesis of department of physics, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Angstrom A. (1924). Solar and terrestrial radiation. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society. 50:121–125.
Prescott J.A. (1940). Evaporation from water surface in relation to solar radiation. Transactions of the Royal Society of Australia; 46:114–8.
Alkpabio L.E, and Etuk S.E (2003). Relationship between global solar radiation and sunshine duration for Onne, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Physics. 27:161–167.
Lewis G. (1992). An empirical relation for estimating global irradiation for Tennessee. USA Energy Conversion and Management; 33(12): 1097–1099.
Rensheng C, Shihua L, Ersi K, Jianping Y, and Xibin J. (2006). Estimating daily global radiation using two types of revised models in China. Energy Conversion and Management; 47:865–78.
Page J.K. (1961). The estimation of monthly mean values of daily total short wave radiation on vertical and inclined surfaces from sunshine records for latitudes 401N–401S. In: Proceedings of UN conference on new sources of energy. 378–390.
Alsaad M.A. (1990). Characteristic distribution of global radiation for Amman, Jordan. Solar and Wind Technology, 7(2/3): 261–266.
Dogniaux R. and Lemoine M. (1983). Classification of radiation sites in terms of different indices of atmospheric transparency. Solar energy research and development in the European Community. Dordrecht, Holland. 2(F).
Sen Z. (2007). Simple non linear solar irradiation estimation model. Renewable Energy; 32: 342–350.
El-Sebaii A.A, Al-Ghamdi A.A, Al-Hazmi F.S. and Faidah A. (2009). Estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Energy Policy; 37: 3645–3649.
Rietveld M. (1978). A new method for estimating the regression coefficients in the formula relating solar radiation to sunshine. Agricultural Meteorology; 19:243–52.
Benson R.B, Paris M.V., SherryJ.E. and Justus C.G. (1984). Estimation of daily and monthly direct diffuse and global solar radiation from sunshine duration measurements. Solar Energy. 32(4) :523–35.
Luhanga P.V.C, and Andringa J. (1990). Characteristic of solar radiation at Sebele, Gaborone, Botswana. Solar Energy; 44:71–81.
Louche A, Notton G, Poggi P, and Simonnot G. (1991). Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site. Solar Energy; 46:261–266.
Hargreaves G.H, and Samani Z.A. (1982). Estimating potential evapotranspiration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering; 108 (IR3): 223–230.
Hargreaves G.H. (1994). Simplified coefficients for estimating monthly solar radiation in North America and Europe. Departmental paper, Department of Biological and Irrigation Engineering, Utah State University, Logan.
Allen R. (1997). Self-calibrating method for estimating solar radiation from air temperature. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 2:56–67.
Allen R. (1995). Evaluation of procedures of estimating mean monthly solar radiation from air temperature. Rome. FAO.
Hunt L.A, Kucharb L. and Swanton C.J. (1998). Estimation of solar radiation for use in crop modeling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; 91:293–300.
Annandale J.G, Jovanic N.Z, Benade N. and Allen R.G. (2002). Software for missing data error analysis of Penman–Monteith reference evapotranspiration. Irrigation Science. 21:57–67.
Bayat K. and Mirlatifi S.M. (2009). Estimation of daily global solar radiation using regression models and artificial neural network. Agriculture’s Science and Natural Resources Magazine; 16:3.
Garg H.P, and Garg S.T. (1982). Prediction of global solar radiation from bright sunshine hours and other meteorological parameters. Solar-India, proceedings on national solar energy convention. New Delhi: Allied Publishers; 1:004–007.
Leckner B. (1978). The spectral distribution of solar radiation at the earth’s surface-elements of a model. Solar Energy; 20: 143–50.
Bristow KL. And Campbell G.S. (1984). The relationship between incoming solar radiation and daily maximum and minimum temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 31:159–166.
Goodin D.G, Hutchinson J.M, Vanderlip R.L, and Knapp M.C. (1999). Estimating solar irradiance for crop modeling using daily air temperature data. Agronomy Journal; 91:845–851.
Meza F, and Varas E. (2000). Estimation of mean monthly solar global radiation as a function of temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; 100:231–241.
Almorox J. and Hontoria C. (2004). Global solar radiation estimation using sunshine duration in Spain. Energy Conversion and Management. 45:1529–35.
Mahmood R, and Hubbar K.G. (2002). Effect of time of temperature observation and estimation of daily solar radiation for the Northern Great Plains, USA. Agronomy Journal; 94:723–33.
Swartman R.K. and Ogunlade O. (1967). Solar radiation estimates from common parameters. Solar Energy; 11:170–172.
Gopinathan K.K. (1988). A simple method for predicting global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Solar and Wind Technology; 5:581–583.
Abdalla Y.A.G. (1994). New correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological parameters for Bahrain. International Journal of Solar Energy; 16:111–120.
Maghrabi A.H. (2009). Parameterization of a simple model to estimate monthly global solar radiation based on meteorological variables, and evaluation of existing solar radiation models for Tabouk, Saudi Arabia. Energy Conversion and Management; 50:2754–60.
Bahel V, Bakhsh H. and Srinivasan R. (1987). A correlation for estimation of global solar radiation. Energy. 12:131–135.
Black J.N. (1956). The distribution of solar radiation over the earth’s surface. Archivfur Meteorologie, Geophysik, und Biokli matologie Serie a meteorologie und Geophysik; 7:165–169.
DeJong R. and Stewart D.W. (1993). Estimating global solar radiation from common meteorological observations in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science; 73:509–18.
Hunt L.A, Kucharb L. and Swanton C.J. (1998). Estimation of solar radiation for use in crop modeling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; 91:293–300.
El-Metwally M. (2005). Sun shine and global solar radiation estimation at different sites in Egypt. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar Terrestrial Physics: 67:1331–1342.
Kilic A, and Ozturk A. (1983). Solar energy. Istanbul: Kipas Yayin cilik.
Zabara K. (1986). Estimation of the global solar radiation in Greece. Solar and Wind Technology; 3(4): 267–272.
Gopinathan K.K. (1988). A general formula for computing the coefficients of the correlations connecting global solar radiation to sunshine duration. Solar Energy; 41:499–502.
Gariepy J. (1980). Estimation of global solar radiation. International report, Service of meteorology, Government of Quebec, Canada.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186