High Accuracy and Sensitivity Method of the Observation of the Surface’s Morphology Changes by Means of Atomic Force Microscopy with Cyclic, Precise Sample Positioning
The submicron changes of the morphological properties of the surface can provide one of the earliest indications of the degradation of the material due exposition to a certain media. Atomic force microscopy, as the tool delivering 3D quantitative imaging of the surface with ultimate resolution, is successfully utilized in the detection of the materials degradation. Yet, a several issues such as the materials non-homogeneity and the presence of the morphological artifacts must be taken into account in terms of the reliability of obtained data, while their presence in the scanned area may cause a significant deviation of the measurement outcome from the values being representative to the condition of the investigated material. In this paper the approach based on the precise sample positioning at each stage of the verification of the deterioration progress is presented. This novel method allows to acquire the information with unique sensitivity and high degree of confidence. Moreover, the observation of the morphology changes at several spots with high receptivity enables determination of the homogeneity of the deterioration, which may play essential role in case of investigation of behavior of complex materials (containing additives or fillers), in particular nanomaterials. A set of experimental results acquired on the polycarbonate and polyethylene samples is here presented, revealing the efficiency of presented approach and its advantages over the commonly applied methods.
High Accuracy and Sensitivity Method of the Observation of the Surface’s Morphology Changes by Means of Atomic Force Microscopy with Cyclic, Precise Sample Positioning, Nanoscience and Nanometrology.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2017, pp. 6-11.
G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, C. Gerber, “Atomic Force Microscope”, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 56, p. 930–933, 1986.
H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Progress in scanning probe microscopy”, Acta Mater., vol. 48, no. 1, p. 347–358, 2000.
M. Nowicki, A. Richter, B. Wolf, H. Kaczmarek, “Nanoscale mechanical properties of polymers irradiated by UV”, Polymer, vol. 44 no. 21, p. 6599-6606, 2003.
F. Rollet, S. Morlat-Thérias, L. J. Gardette, “AFM analysis of CD-R photoageing”, Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 94, p. 877–885, 2009.
P.-O. Bussiere, E. Desnoux, S. Collin, C. Vial, S. Therias, J.-L. Gardette, “Is Carbonyl Index a quantitative probe to monitor polypropylene photodegradation?”, Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 128, p. 200–208, 2015.
A. Sikora, A. Grabarek, L. Moroń, M. Wałecki, P. Kryla, “The investigation of the light radiation caused polyethylene based materials deterioration by means of atomic force microscopy”, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 113, p. 012016, 2016.
H. Wang, H. Xie, Z. Hu, D. Wu, P. Chen, “The influence of UV radiation and moisture on the mechanical properties and micro-structure of single Kevlar fibre using optical methods”, Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 97, p. 1755–1761, 2012.
A. Sikora, L. Bednarz, T. Fałat, M. Wałecki, M. Adamowska, “The investigation of the simulated solar radiation impact on the micro- and nanoscale morphology and mechanical properties of the sheet moulded composite surface”, Mater. Sci., vol. 34, no.3, p. 641-649, 2016.
C. Robertson, M. Wertheimer, D. Fournier, L. Lamarre, “Study on the morphology of XLPE power cable by means of atomic force microscopy”, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 3, p. 283–8, 1996.
E. Canetta, K. Montiel, A. K. Adya, “Morphological changes in textile fibres exposed to environmental stresses: atomic force microscopic examination”, Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 191, no. 1–3, p. 6-14, 2009.
B. Suresh, S. Maruthamuthu, A. Khare, N. Palanisamy, V. S. Muralidharan, R. Ragunathan, M. Kannan, K. N. Pandiyaraj, “Influence of thermal oxidation on surface and thermo-mechanical properties of polyethylene”, J. Polym. Res., vol. 18, no. 6, p. 2175-2184, 2011.
F. Ravari, A. Omrani, A. A. Rostami, M. Ehsani, “Ageing effects on electrical, morphological, and mechanical properties of a low viscosity epoxy nanocomposite”, Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 97, p. 929–935, 2012.
R. Mikšová, A. Macková, P. Malinský, P. Slepička, V. Švorčík, “A study of the degradation of polymers irradiated by Cn+ and On+ 9.6 MeV heavy ions”, Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol.122, p. 110–121, 2015.
P. Lochyński, A. Sikora, B. Szczygieł, “Surface morphology and passive film composition after pickling and electropolishing”, Surf. Eng. vol. 33, no.5, p. 395–403, 2017.
O. Güven, A. Alacakir, E. Tan, “An atomic force microscopy study of the surfaces of polyethylene and polycarbonate films irradiated with gamma rays”, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 50, p. 165, 1997.
A. Sikora, A. Iwan, “AFM study of the mechanical wear phenomena of the polyazomethine with thiophene rings: Tapping mode, phase imaging mode and force spectroscopy”, High Perf. Pol., vol. 24, no.3, p. 218–228, 2012.
A. Sikora, L. Bednarz, G. Ekwiński, and M. Ekwińska, “The determination of the spring constant of T-shaped cantilevers using calibration structures,” Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 25, no. 4, p. 044015, 2014.
S. N. Ramakrishna, L. Y. Clasohm, A. Rao, N. D. Spencer, “Controlling Adhesion Force by Means of Nanoscale Surface Roughness”, Langmuir, vol. 27, p. 9972, 2011.
A. Sikora, “Development and utilization of the nanomarkers for precise AFM tip positioning in the investigation of the surface morphology change”, Opt. Appl., vol. 43 no.1, p. 163–171, 2013.
A. Sikora, “Improvement of the scanning area positioning repeatability using nanomarkers developed with a nanoscratching method”, Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 25, p. 055401, 2014.
A. Sikora, “The new approach to the investigation of the roughness changes of the non-uniform materials irradiated with UV light and imaged by means of atomic force microscopy supported with precise repetitive scanning area positioning”, Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 28, p. 034016, 2017.
A. K. Bajpai, R. Bhatt, R. Katare, “Atomic force microscopy enabled roughness analysis of nanostructured poly (diaminonaphthalene) doped poly (vinyl alcohol) conducting polymer thin films”, Micron, vol. 90, p. 12–17, 2016.
www. imagemet. com (Accessed: 5 March 2017).