Surface Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Isolated Cylindrical Nickel Nanowires
American Journal of Nanosciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2017, Pages: 30-38
Received: May 10, 2017; Accepted: Jun. 5, 2017; Published: Jul. 4, 2017
Views 1361      Downloads 86
Musaab Salman Sultan, Information Security Department, Technical College of Informatics, Dohuk Polytechnic University, Kurdistan Region, Akre, Iraq; Accounting Department, Rawanduz Private Technical Institute, Kurdistan Region, Akre, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
In this article, the surface morphology and magnetic properties of isolated cylindrical nickel (Ni) nanowires fabricated by electrodeposition have been thoroughly investigated using scanning electron microscopy and Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) magnetometry, respectively. The surfaces of most nanowires were found to be homogenous, uniform, and cylindrical in shape. Some others show different diameters and surface features, including; protrusions and branches along their length. The diameter distribution of a wide range of nanowires was found to differ from their template pore diameters. These all variations are more likely due to defects exist in the internal surfaces of the pores within the template itself, or may be associated with the trapped air pockets within the pores during nanowires growth or due to the oxide formation or residual contaminants which may cover these wires. The nanowires lengths were found to differ from their actual lengths estimated during deposition growth. This was attributed to the breakage of nanowires into small sections during releasing process. The hysteresis loops obtained by applying a magnetic field at different angles with respect to the nanowires long axis showed square hysteresis loops with a sharp jump of Kerr signal during switching behaviour, as well as a high squareness ratio, indicating the dominance of shape anisotropy. These results are quite different from the measurements of high density templated nanowires reported in the literature, due to the small number of nearest neighbour nanowires, and hence no magneto-static interaction. The magnetisation reversal of such wires is well described by the non-uniform rotation of the curling model of domain reversal.
Ferromagnetic Nanowires, Surface Morphology, Magnetic Properties, Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) Magnetometery, Magnetisation Reversal, Curling Model
To cite this article
Musaab Salman Sultan, Surface Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Isolated Cylindrical Nickel Nanowires, American Journal of Nanosciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2017, pp. 30-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ajn.20170303.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Adeyeye, A. O., Bland, J. A. C., Daboo C., Lee J., Ebels U. & Ahmed H. (1996) "Size dependence of the magnetoresistance in submicron FeNi wires" J. Appl. Phys., 79 (8), 6120.
Aharoni, A. (1999) "Curling reversal mode in nonellipsoidal ferromagnetic particles" J. Appl. Phys., 86 (2), 1041.
Aharoni, A. (1986) "Magnetization buckling in a prolate spheroid" J. Appl. Phys., 60 (3), 1118.
Aharoni, A. & Shtrikman, S. (1958) "Magnetization curve of the infinite cylinder" Phys. Rev., 109 (5), 1522.
Allwood, D. A, Xiong, G., Cooke, M. D. & Cowburn, R. P. (2003) "Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis of magnetic nanostructures" J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 36 (18), 2175.
Aravamudhan, S., Singleton, J., Goddard, P. A. & Bhansali, S. (2009) "Magnetic properties of Ni– Fe nanowire arrays: Effect of template material and deposition conditions" J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 42 (11), 115008.
Atkinson D., Allwood D., Xiong G., Cooke, M. D., Faulkner C. C. & Cowburn R. P. (2003) "Magnetic domain-wall dynamics in a submicrometre ferromagnetic structure" Nat. Mat., 2 (2), 85.
Atkinson, D., Eastwood, D. S. & Bogart, L. K. (2008) "Controlling domain wall pinning in planar nanowires by selecting domain wall type and its application in a memory concept" Appl. Phys. Lett., 92 (2), 022510.
Bai, A. & Hu, C.-C. (2003) "Iron–cobalt and iron–cobalt–nickel nanowires deposited by means of cyclic voltammetry and pulse-reverse electroplating" Elec. Comm., 5 (1), 78.
Bergenti I., Riminucci A., Arisi E., Murgia M., Cavallini M., Solzi M., Casoli F. & Dediu V. (2007) "Magnetic properties of cobalt thin films deposited on soft organic layers" J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 316 (2), e987.
Bryan, M. T., Atkinson, D. & Allwood, D. A. (2006) "Multimode switching induced by a transverse field in planar magnetic nanowires" Appl. Phys. Lett., 88 (3), 032505.
Cao, G. (2004) "Nanostructures and Nanomaterails Synthesis; Properties and Applications" Imperial College Press.
Chen, W., Tang, S., Lu, M. & Du, Y. (2003) "The magnetic properties and reversal of Fe–Co nanowire arrays" J. Phys.: Condense Matter, 15 (26), 4623.
Coey, J. M. D. & Hinds, G. (2001) "Magnetic electrodeposition" J. Alloys and Compounds, 326 (1-2), 238.
Cullity, B. D. & Graham, C. D. (2009) "Introduction to magnetic materials" 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
Dao, N., Homer, S. R. & Whittenburg, S. L. (1999) "Micromagnetics simulation of nanoshaped iron elements: Comparison with experiment" J. Appl. Phys., 86 (6), 3262.
Daub, M., Enculescu, I., Neumann, R. & Spohr, R. (2005) "Ni nanowires electrodeposited in single ion track templates" J. Opt. Adv. Mat., 7 (2), 865.
Dumpich, G., Krome, T. P. & Hausmanns, B. (2002) "Magnetoresistance of single Co nanowires" J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 248 (2), 241.
Ferré, R., Ounadjela, K., George, J., Piraux, L. & Dubois, S. (1997) "Magnetization processes in nickel and cobalt electrodeposited nanowires" Phys. Rev. B, 56 (21), 14066.
Fert, A. & Piraux, L. (1999) "Magnetic nanowires" J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 200, 338.
Forster, H., Schrefl, T., Scholz, W., Suess, D., Tsiantos, V. & Fidler, J. (2002) "Micromagnetic simulation of domain wall motion in magnetic nano-wires" J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 249 (1-2), 181.
Golstein, J. I., Newbury, D. E., Echlin, P., Joy, D. C., Romig A. D. Jr., Lyman C. E., Fiori C. & Lifshin E.(1992) "Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray" 2nd edition, Plenum press, New Yourk & London, P 177.
Goodhew, P. J., Humphrey, J. S & Beanland, R. (2001) "Electron microscopy and analysis" 3rd edition, Taylor & Francis, London.
Hertel, R. & Kirschner, J. (2004) "Magnetization reversal dynamics in nickel nanowires" Physica B: Condensed Matter, 343 (1-4), 206.
Jiles D. (1998) "Introduction to magnetism and magnetic materials" 2nd edition, Chapman and Hall/CRC New York.
Jin, C. G., Liu, W. F., Jia C., Xiang, X. Q., Cai, W. L., Yao, L. Z. & Li, X. G. (2003) "High filling large area Ni nanowires arrays and the magnetic properties" J. Crystal Growth, 258, 337.
Khan, H. R. & Petrikowski, K. (2002) "Magnetic and structural properties of the electrochemically deposited arrays of Co and CoFe nanowires" J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 249 (3), 458.
Kunz, A., Reiff, S. C., Priem, J. D. & Rentsch, E. W. (2010) "Controlling individual domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires for memory and sensor applications" International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, 248.
Lee, S.-W., Jeong, M.-C., Myoung, J.-M., Chae, G.-S. & Chung, I.-J. (2007) "Magnetic alignment of ZnO nanowires for optoelectronic device applications" Appl. Phys. Lett., 90 (13), 133115.
Li, X. Wang, Y., Song, G., Peng, Z., Yu, Y., She, X. & Li, J. (2009) "Synthesis and growth mechanism of Ni nanotubes and nanowires" Nano. Res. Lett., 4 (9), 1015.
Lodder, J. C. (2004) "Methods for preparing patterned media for high-density recording" J. Mag. Mag. Mat., 272-276, 1692.
Lupu N., Lostun M. & Chiriac H. (2010) "Surface magnetization processes in soft magnetic nanowires" J. Appl. Phys., 107 (9), 09E315.
McCord, M. A., and Rooks, M. J. (1997) "SPIE Handbook of Microlithography; Micromachining and Microfibrication" edited by P. Rai Choudhury (SPIE, Bellingham, WA), Vol. 1, link/APL/ 79/ 1721/ 1.
Nalwa, H. S. (2002) "Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology" Academic Press.
Nasirpouri, F. (2007) "Template electrodeposition of magnetic nanowire arrays" Trans world Res. Net., 661, 37.
Nian-mei, Han, Guang-hua, Guo, Guang-fu, Z., Wen-bing, S. & Gao-fu, Men (2007) "Domain wall structure transition during magnetization reversal process in magnetic nanowires" Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 17 (60571043), 1034.
Nielsch K. & Stadler, B. J. H. (2007) "Handbook of magnetism and advanced magnetic materials: Template-based synthesis and characterization of high-density ferromagnetic nanowire arrays" Edited by Helmut Kronmuller and Stuart Parkin, Volume 4: Novel Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pignard, S., Goglio, G., Radulescu, A., Piraux, L., Dubois, S., Declémy, A. & Duvail, J. L. (2000) "Study of the magnetization reversal in individual nickel nanowires" J. Appl. Phys., 87 (2), 824.
Possin, E. George (1970) "A method for forming very small diameter wires" Rev. Sci. Ins., 41, 772.
Rahman, I. Z., Razeeb, K. M., Kamruzzaman, Md., Serantoni, M. (2004) "Characterisation of electrodeposited Ni nanowires using NCA template" J. Mats. Proc. Tech., 153-154, 811.
Rheem Y., Yoo B.-Y., Beyermann W. P. & Myung N. V. (2007) "Electro-and magneto- transport properties of a single CoNi nanowire" Nanotech., 18 (12), 125204.
Rheem Y., Yoo B.-Y., Koo B. K., Beyermann W. P. & Myung N. V. (2007) "Synthesis and magnetotransport studies of single nickel-rich NiFe nanowire" J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 40 (23), 7267.
Rheem Y., Yoo, B.-Y., Beyermann W. P. & Myung N. V. (2007) "Magneto-transport studies of single ferromagnetic nanowire" Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 204 (12), 4004.
Sellmyer, D. J., Zheng, M. & Skomski, R. (2001) "Magnetism of Fe, Co and Ni nanowires in self-assembled arrays" J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 13, R433.
Sharma S., Barman A., Sharma M., Shelford, L. R., Kruglyak, V. V. & Hicken, R. J. (2009) "Structural and magnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowire arrays" Sol. St. Comm., 149, 1650.
Skomski R., Zeng H., Zheng M. & Sellmyer D. (2000) "Magnetic localization in transition- metal nanowires" Phys. Rev. B, 62 (6), 3900.
Stoner, E. C. & Wohlfarth, E. P. (1948) "A mechanism of magnetic hysteresis in heterogeneous alloys" Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 240 (826), 599.
Sultan, M. S. (2017) "Fabrication and characterization of single electrodeposited fer romagnetic nanowires" Journal of Erbil Polytechnic University. To be published.
Sultan, M. S., Atkinson, D. (2016) "Aspect-ratio dependence of magnetization reversal in cylindrical ferromagnetic nanowires" Material Research Express, 3, 056104.
Sultan, M. S., Das B., Sen P., Mandal K. & Atkinson D. (2012) "Template released ferromagnetic nanowires: Morphology and magnetic properties" J. Spintron. Magn. Nanomater., 1, 1.
Sun L., Hao Y., Chien C. L. & Searson P. C. (2005) "Tuning the properties of magnetic nanowires" IBM J. RES. & DEV., 49 (1), 79.
Vázquez, M. Pirota, K., Hernandez-Velez, M., Prida, V. M., Navas, D., Sanz, R. & Batallan F. (2004) "Magnetic properties of densely packed arrays of Ni nanowires as a function of their diameter and lattice parameter" J. Appl. Phys., 95 (11), 6642.
Vázquez, M., Hernández-Vélez, M., Pirota, K., Asenjo, A., Navas, D., Velázquez, J., Vargas, P. & Ramos C. (2004) "Arrays of Ni nanowires in alumina membranes: magnetic properties and spatial ordering" The European Physical Journal B, 40 (4), 489.
Vila L., George J. M., Faini G., Popa A., Ebels U., Ounadjela K. & Piraux L. (2002) "Transport and magnetic properties of isolated cobalt nanowires" IEEE Trans. Mag., 38 (5), 2577.
Vila, L., Piraux, L., George, J. M. & Faini, G. (2002) "Multiprobe magnetoresistance measurements on isolated magnetic nanowires" Appl. Phys. Lett., 80 (20), 3805.
Volkert, C. A., Minor, A. M. & Editors, G. (2007) "Focused ion beam micromachining" MIRS Bulletin, 32, 389.
Wernsdorfer, W., Doudin, B., Mailly, D., Hasselbach, K., Benoit, A, Meier, J., Ansermet, J.-Ph. & Barbara B. (1996) "Nucleation of magnetization reversal in individual nanosized nickel wires" Phys. Rev. Lett., 77 (9), 1873.
Yamazaki, K. (2008) "Nanofabrication Fundamentals and Applications" World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
Yoo, B., Rheem, Y., Beyermann, W. P. & Myung, N. V. (2006) "Magnetically assembled 30 nm diameter nickel nanowire with ferromagnetic electrodes" Nanotech., 17 (10), 2512.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931