Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 99-108
Received: Aug. 22, 2017;
Accepted: Sep. 14, 2017;
Published: Oct. 23, 2017
Views 2510 Downloads 102
Daniel Opoku Amoah, Biological Sciences Department, College of Science, Computer Studies, De La Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines
Maritan Bringas Joson, Biological Sciences Department, College of Science, Computer Studies, De La Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines
Marlon Cartera Pareja, Biological Sciences Department, College of Science, Computer Studies, De La Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines
The study was mainly aimed to determine the antiurolithiathic potential of different concentrations of E. indica root extract on ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in Rattus norvergicus (albino rats). It specifically targeted the effects the plant extract will pose on serum parameters (creatinine, BUN and uric acid) nitrituria, proteinuria, calcium oxalate excretion, and the histopathology of kidney tubules and glomeruli of albino rats. In the study, root of E. indica was collected, dried and extracted using distilled water of 80°C-100°C. The actual experimental period lasted for 4 weeks. The study involved 5 test groups; negative control group (T-), positive control group or lithogenic group (T+), two prophylactic groups (T1 and T2) receiving different concentrations of E. indica root extract (T1- 500mg/kg and T2- 800mg/kg) and one curative group receiving 800mg/kg of E. indica root extract after being induced with kidney stones during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. All the test groups received 0.75% ethylene glycol (stone inducing chemical) in water for 4 week ad libitum with the exception of the negative control. At the end of the study, there was elevated levels of serum creatinine, BUN and uric acid among the lithogenic group which was normalized in all the three treatment groups. There was no significant difference between the serum parameters of the E. indica treatment groups and that of negative control (P < 0.05). There was the presence of nitrituria, proteinuria, high pH and high levels of calcium oxalate excretion in the lithogenic group. But again all these parameters were normalized in the three E. indica treatment groups. E. indica root extract also maintained the normal structure of kidney glomeruli and tubules among T1 and T2 (prophylactic groups) and repaired kidney defects in T3 (curative group). E. indica root extract thus possess antiurolithiathic potentials and can be used to prevent and cure nephrolithiasis in albino rats.
Daniel Opoku Amoah,
Maritan Bringas Joson,
Marlon Cartera Pareja,
Antiurolithiatic Potential of Eleusine indica Linn. (GOOSE GRASS) Root Extract on Ethylene Glycol Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rattus norvegicus (ALBINO RATS), Biomedical Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2017, pp. 99-108.
Romero V, Akpinar H., Assimos DG. 2010. Kidney Stones: A global picture of prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors. Rev Urol. Spring-Summer; 12(2-3): e86–e96.
Scales CD, Smith AC, Hanley JM, Saigal CS. 2012. Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States. Eur Urol. 62(1): 160–165.
Santos C. 2010. Erap’s Manila Dialysis Center RP’s 1st Free Renal Treatment Facility. EDP- DOST.
Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman, K. 2012. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128.
Ankur C., Parasar A, Aadarsh C, Iyer D. 2010. Potential of medicinal plants in kidney, gall and urinary stones. Int.J.Drug Dev. & Res. 2(2):431-447.
Rojas SJ, Acevedo RP. 2014. Eleusine indica (goose grass) Cabi. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, pp 98:1192.
Brands S. Watve, A. 2013. Eleusine indica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 177-359.
Okokon JE, Odomena CS, Imabong E, Obot J, Udobang J. 2010. Antiplasmodial and antidiabetic activities of Eleusine indica. Int J Drug Dev & Res 2(3):975-9344.
Stuart G. 2013. Philippines medicinal plant. Retrieved from http://www.stuartxchange. com/Paragis.html
Balangcod TD, Vallejo VL, Patacsil M, Apostol O et al. 2012. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants of Bayabas, Sablan, Benguet Provinnce, CAR, Luzon Philippines. Indian journal of traditional knowledge.11 (4):580-585.
Lans CA. 2006. Ethno medicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine2:45. 10.1186/1746-4269-2-45.
Brent J.2001. Current management of ethylene glycol poisoning. Drugs. 61 (7): 979–88. ISSN 0012-6667. PMID 11434452.
Alaekwe IO, Ajiwe VI. Ajiwe AC and Aningo G. N. 2015. Phytochemical and Anti – Microbial Screening of the Aerial Parts of Eleusine indica. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 3 (1): 257-264.
Patel PK, Patel MA, Saralai MG, Gandhi TR. 2012. Antiurolithiatic effects of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract on ethyleneglycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. J Young Pharmacists;4:164-70.
Touhami M, Amine L et al. 2007. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model ISCMR 7:18 10.1186/1471-2490-7-18.
Hiremath RD, Jalalpure SS. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2016;48:434-40.
Asha S, Thirunavukkarasu P. 2013 Antiurolithiatic activity of amaranthus viridis on ethylene glycol induced male rat. Inventi Rapid pharmacognosy vol.13 issue 4 ISSN 0976-3805
Atmani F, Slimani Y, Mimouni M, Hachtm B. 2003. Prophylaxis of calcium oxalate stones by Herniaria hirsute on experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in rats. BJU Int. ;92:137–40. [PubMed].
Gross JL, de Azevedo MJ, Silveiro SP, Canani LH, Caramori ML, Zelmanovitz T. 2005. "Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment". Diabetes Care. 28 (1): 164 76. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.1.164. PMID 15616252.
Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. 2002. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman. Section 23.3.
Pagana KD, Pagana TJ.2010. Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Giknis MLA, and Clifford CB. 1999. Clinical laboratory parameters for the crl:CD(SD) rats, Charles river Laboratories.
Morah F. 2015. Antimicrobial and antihelminthic activity of E. indica. Acta Scientia et intellectus. ISSN 2410-9738.
Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. 2011. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 5th edition, St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.
Johnson RJ1, Nakagawa T, Jalal D, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Kang DH, Ritz E. 2013. Uric acid and chronic kidney disease: which is chasing which? Epub 2221-8. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gft029.
Wagner CA, Mohebbi N. 2010. Urinary pH and stone formation. JNEPHROL 2010; 23 (S16): S165-S169. PMID:21170875.
Wurzner G, Gerster JC, Chiolero A, Maillard M, Brunner HR, Comparative effects of losaratan and irbesartan on serum uric acid level in hypertensive patients with hyperuricaemia and Gout, 2001; 19(10):1855-60.
Abbate, M., Zoja, C., Remuzzi, G. 2006. How does proteinuria cause progressive renal damage? J Am Soc Nephrol. 17:2974–2984.
Fitzgerald MA., Nettina SM. 2003. Urinary Tract Infection: Providing the Best Care. P&G pharmaceuticals.
Bass PF 3d, Jarvis JA, Mitchell CK. Urinary tract infections. Prim Care. 2003;30:41–61.
Bergeron MG. Treatment of pyelonephritis in adults. Med Clin North Am. 1995;79:619–49.
Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012.
Agarwal SK, Sethi S, Dinda AK. 2013. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective. Indian J Nephrol PMC3741965.
Lieske JC, Hewson S, Terence M, Briony P, Gary FT.1994. Renal epithelial cells rapidly bind and internalize calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals Proc. Nati.Acad.Sci.USA Vol.91, pp. 6987-6991.
Jain A, Maheshwari V, Alam K, Mehdi G, Sharma SC. 2009. Apoptosis in premalignant and malignant squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity: a light microscopic study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 52(2):164-6.
Kumar V, Abbas A, Nelson F, Mitchell R .2007. "Robbins Basic Pathology". Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.): 6, 9–10.
Miner JH. 2013. "The glomerular basement membrane as a barrier to albumin". Nature reviews. Nephrology. 9 (8): 470–477. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2013.109. PMC 3839671 . PMID 23774818.
Garo M. Tertzakian, Matthew L. Greenberger, William F. Pearce. 2016 kidney stone. Health oracle.org.
Castillo ET, Siapno FE, Sambrana DG, De Leon NP, Silvoza EQ.2005. Grassland species with medicinal potentials. Research information Series on Ecosystems 17(1-3):1-3.
Marissa L Wolff, Jennifer L Cruz, Adam J Vanderman, Jaimie N Brown. The effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers on hyperuricemia. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2015; 6(6):339-346.