Efficacy of Plant-based Repellents Against Anopheles Mosquitoes: A Systematic Review
Biomedical Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 44-51
Received: Jun. 10, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 20, 2020; Published: Jul. 4, 2020
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Laura Nyawira Wangai, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Kenny Kimani Kamau, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Godwil Munyekenye, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
David Nderu, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Eva Maina, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
William Gitau, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Mary Murigi, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Susan Kamau, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Mercy Njuguna, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Joseph Gichuki, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
Fredrick Otieno, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kutus, Kenya
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Mosquitoes are usually targeted using insecticides, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. However, these strategies have negative effects on human health, the environment and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including plant-based insecticides. To date few studies have adopted World Health Organization (WHO) Pesticide Evaluation Scheme guidelines for repellent testing against mosquitoes. This review presents a summary of recent information on development, and efficacy of plant-based repellents against Anopheles mosquitoes as well as promising new advances in the field. All eligible studies published up to April 2020 were systematically searched in several databases, namely PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google scholar. The outcomes of interest were percentage repellency, protection time and additional properties identified in repellent compounds. A total of 27 trials met the inclusion criteria. The highest repellency effect against mosquitoes was conferred by citronella, followed by Ligusticum sinense extract, pine, Dalbergia sissoo, and Rhizophora mucronata oils with 100% protection for 8 to 14 hours. Furthermore, essential oils from plants such as lavender, camphor, catnip, geranium, jasmine, broad-leaved eucalyptus, lemongrass, lemon-scented eucalyptus, amyris, narrow-leaved eucalyptus, carotin, cedarwood, chamomile, cinnamon oil, juniper, cajeput, soya bean, rosemary, niaouli, olive, tagetes, violet, sandalwood, litsea, galbanum, and C. longa also showed >90% repellency within 8 hours against different species of Anopheles. Therefore, the review showed, essential oils and extracts of some plants could be formulated for the development of eco-friendly repellents against Anopheles species. Plant oils may serve as suitable alternatives to synthetic repellents in the future as they are relatively safe, inexpensive, and are readily available in many parts of the world.
Plant, Plant Extract, Repellent, Repellency Index, Anopheles, Essential Oil
To cite this article
Laura Nyawira Wangai, Kenny Kimani Kamau, Godwil Munyekenye, David Nderu, Eva Maina, William Gitau, Mary Murigi, Susan Kamau, Mercy Njuguna, Joseph Gichuki, Fredrick Otieno, Efficacy of Plant-based Repellents Against Anopheles Mosquitoes: A Systematic Review, Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 44-51. doi: 10.11648/j.bs.20200603.11
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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