Review Paper on Mutation Breeding as Applied in Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea L.) Improvement
Groundnut or peanut is one among the five extensively grown oil crops of Ethiopia where it is grown and utilized for extracting cooking oil, and also for confectionary under rain fed condition. As a legume, groundnut improves soil by fixing nitrogen biologically without consuming non-renewable energies and without disturbing agro-ecological balance. Aflatoxin is one of the major problems in groundnut, which hinders not only the domestic consumption but also export of groundnut since the international regulation for minimum standards for aflatoxin contamination is becoming stringent. To reduce the harmful effect of Aflatoxin and meeting other agronomic and breeding objectives, mutation breeding is an important breeding strategy. The objective of this review paper was to refer the works done so far to improve the groundnut varieties through mutation breeding. Mutation breeding relies on the implementation of either physical or chemical agents in order to create variability in the population of interest through the process called mutagenesis. Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed in a stable manner. Mutagenesis can be physical (the use of physical agents) or chemical (the use of chemical agents) to create variability. Development of high-yielding peanut mutants through chemical mutagenesis such as Flower injection of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), Seed treatment with chemical mutagens such as sodium azide (NaN3) was resulted in yield increment over untreated local varieties. Physical mutagens include electromagnetic radiation, such as gamma rays, X-rays and UV light and particle radiation such as fast and thermal neutrons, ß and alfa particles were also used in ground nut improvement.
Review Paper on Mutation Breeding as Applied in Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea L.) Improvement, Gene and Cell Therapy.
Vol. 1, No. 5,
2016, pp. 35-40.
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