First Detection of Augmentin and Colistin Resistant Cronobacter Sakazakii from a Pharmaceutical Wastewater in South-Western Nigeria
American Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 1-9
Received: May 8, 2018; Accepted: May 29, 2018; Published: Jun. 12, 2018
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Authors
Avemaria Obasi, Department of Microbiology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Simon Cyril Nwachukwu, Department of Microbiology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Esther Ugoji, Department of Microbiology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
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Abstract
Cronobacter sakazakii formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is a bacterium with a rare cause but often fatal infection of the bloodstream and central nervous system. Infants with weakened immune systems, particularly premature infants, are most likely to contact a Cronobacter infection, although the bacteria have caused illnesses in all age groups. Most cases of C. sakazakii infection come from powdered infant formula (PIF) contaminated with the bacterium. Although relatively little information is known about the existence of Cronobacter in the environment, more reservoirs are being identified, such as water, soil and plant material. Wastewaters from 6 pharmaceutical industries located in a south-western state in Nigeria were sampled and analyzed. Bacteria were isolated using standard methods and species identification was determined by Gram staining, lactose fermentation, oxidase, catalase and Vitek 2. Antibacterial susceptibility to 25 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disc diffusion method and Vitek 2. Fifty nine Gram-negative bacteria were isolated and identified; one was identified as C. sakazakii. The bacterium was susceptible to all antibiotic mentioned but resistant to augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) and colistin which are high potent drugs for the treatment of very stubborn infections. The public health implication of this fact is that this bacterium could be harbouring resistant genes that can be transferred through water ways such as the pharmaceutical wastewaters to bacteria of the same or different species of clinical importance. Therefore, continuous surveillance of the environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria is necessary to prevent their further spread.
Keywords
C. Sakazakii, Colistin, Augmentin, Pharmaceutical Wastewater
To cite this article
Avemaria Obasi, Simon Cyril Nwachukwu, Esther Ugoji, First Detection of Augmentin and Colistin Resistant Cronobacter Sakazakii from a Pharmaceutical Wastewater in South-Western Nigeria, American Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcbe.20180201.11
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Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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