Enhancing Performance of Silty Clayey Sandy and of Pavement Using Cement and Geogrid in South Republic of Benin (West Africa)
International Journal of Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy
Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 42-53
Received: Sep. 15, 2020; Accepted: Oct. 15, 2020; Published: Oct. 26, 2020
Views 60      Downloads 27
Authors
Alaye Quirin Engelbert Ayeditan, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin; Department of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
Agbadogbe Senan Jeannot, Department of Civil Engineering, The Associated Engineering Partnership, Cotonou, Benin
Toure Youssouf, Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China
Chango Valere Loic, Department of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
Assogba Ogoubi Cyriaque, Department of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Pavement infrastructure built on expansive soil can experience multiple forms of degradation, mainly cracks when there are no adequate arrangements made to avoid or to limit the impact of the changes on the volume of the supporting soil. In this research, three objectives have been adopted in-depth on the performance characteristics of West Africans soil and aim to (i) accessing characteristics of soil types in the region; (ii) assessing the performance of these soils with 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5% and 5.5% of cement and (iii) using geogrid to evaluate the performance of pavement on clayey soil. Design of flexible pavement is largely based on empirical methods using layered elastic and two­dimensional finite element (FE) analysis. Currently a shift underway towards more mechanistic design techniques to minimize the limitations in determining stress, strain and displacement in pavement analysis. For this reason, computational analysis of pavement methods have been investigated on the structural model pavement and the effectiveness of geogrids as a reinforcement of layer in a flexible pavement system. In this study, flexible pavement modeling is done using Abaqus software in which model dimensions, element types and meshing strategies are taken by successive trial and error to achieve desired accuracy and convergence of the research. Flexible pavements (with and without geogrids) were built and subjected to 127.49 kN load applications and the Finite Element Method (FEM) as computer analysis under static load. The results reveal that the proportion of percentage cement leading to the best performances varying from 3% to 5.5%. And, the pavement made with geogrid in subgrade is the best. As a conclusion, in an unstable area, this research suggests the use of silty clayey sandy treated with a minimum percentage of 3% cement in subbase layer and geogrid in subgrade because, the inclusion of geogrid in subgrade reduces the deformation.
Keywords
Soil, Flexible Pavements, Cement, Geogrid, Finite Element Method
To cite this article
Alaye Quirin Engelbert Ayeditan, Agbadogbe Senan Jeannot, Toure Youssouf, Chango Valere Loic, Assogba Ogoubi Cyriaque, Enhancing Performance of Silty Clayey Sandy and of Pavement Using Cement and Geogrid in South Republic of Benin (West Africa), International Journal of Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy. Special Issue: Enhancing Performance of Soil and Precluding Landslide in Africa. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2020, pp. 42-53. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmpem.20200503.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Laubach S E, Olson J E, Gross M R. Mechanical and fracture stratigraphy [J]. AAPG bulletin, 2009, 93 (11): 1413–1426.
[2]
Farifteh J, Farshad A, George R. Assessing salt-affected soils using remote sensing, solute modelling, and geophysics [J]. Geoderma, 2006, 130 (3–4): 191–206.
[3]
Loveland P. Soil Genesis and Classification [M]// Soil genesis and classification /. 1980.
[4]
Nicholson G A, Bieniawski Z T. A nonlinear deformation modulus based on rock mass classification [J]. International Journal of Mining & Geological Engineering, 1990, 8 (3): 181–202.
[5]
Al-Rawas A A, Mcgown A. Microstructure of Omani expansive soils [J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1999, 36 (2): 272–290.
[6]
Amšiejus J, Dirgėlienė N, Norkus A. Comparison of sandy soil shear strength parameters obtained by various construction direct shear apparatuses [J]. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 2014, 14 (2): 327–334.
[7]
Tangchaosheng, Shibin, Cuiyujun, et al. Desiccation cracking behavior of polypropylene fiber–reinforced clayey soil [J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2012, 49 (9): 1088-1101.
[8]
Hardy F. Studies in tropical soils. III. The shrinkage behaviour of lateritic and kaolinitic soils [J]. Journal of Agricultural Science, 1934, 24 (1): 59-71.
[9]
Ghasabkolaei N, Choobbasti A J, Roshan N. Geotechnical properties of the soils modified with nanomaterials: A comprehensive review [J]. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 2017, 17 (3): 639–650.
[10]
Kazmierczak J-B, Maison T, Laouafa F. Un nouveau dispositif pour la caractérisation du retrait et du gonflement des sols argileux [J]. Revue Française de Géotechnique, 2016 (147): 1.
[11]
Mouroux P, Margron P, Pinte J-C. La construction économique sur sols gonflants [M]. Editions BRGM, 1988, 14.
[12]
Snethen D R. Characterization of expansive soils using soil suction data [C]//ASCE, 1980: 54–75.
[13]
Tsiambaos G, Tsaligopoulos C. A proposed method of estimating the swelling characteristics of soils: Some examples from Greece [J]. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology - Bulletin de l'Association Internationale de Géologie de l'Ingénieur, 1995, 52 (1): 109-115.
[14]
Attoh-Okine N. Lime treatment of laterite soils and gravels−revisited [J]. Construction and Building Materials, 1995, 9 (5): 283−287 (in France).
[15]
Wathugala G, Huang B, Pal S. Numerical simulation of geosynthetic-reinforced flexible pavements [J]. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1996 (1534): 58–65.
[16]
Saad B, Mitri H, Poorooshasb H. Three-dimensional dynamic analysis of flexible conventional pavement foundation [J]. Journal of transportation engineering, 2005, 131 (6): 460–469.
[17]
Afnor N. 94-056. Analyse granulométrique: méthode par tamisage à sec après lavage [M]. Normalisation Française, 1992.
[18]
Afnor N. 94-056. Analyse granulométrique: Méthode par tamisage [M]. Normalisation Française, 1996.
[19]
Afnor. NF P94-051. Reconnaissance et essai de détermination des limites d’Atterberg [M]. Normalisation Française, 1993: 15.
[20]
Afnor. NF P94-093- Détermination des caractéristiques de compactage d’un sol, essai Proctor normale, essai Proctor modifié [M]. Normalisation Française, 1993: 14.
[21]
Astm D3282-09. Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes [M]. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org., 2009.
[22]
Afnor. EN 13286-2-Mélanges traités et mélanges non traités aux liants hydrauliques Partie 2 : méthodes d’essai de détermination en laboratoire de la masse volumique de référence et de la teneur en eau - Compactage Proctor [M]. Normalisation Française, 2010.
[23]
Afnor. EN 13286-50. Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures - Part 50: Method for the manufacture of test specimens of hydraulically bound mixtures using Proctor equipment or vibrating table compaction [M]. Normalisation Française, 2004.
[24]
Zaghloul S M, White T. Use of a three-dimensional, dynamic finite element program for analysis of flexible pavement [J]. Transportation research record, 1993 (1388).
[25]
Park S, Kim Y. Fitting Prony-series viscoelastic models with power-law presmoothing [J]. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2001, 13 (1): 26–32.
[26]
Harris P. Evaluation of stabilization of sulfate soils in Texas [R]. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A & M University System, 2008.
[27]
Sebesta S. Investigation of maintenance base repairs over expansive soils: Year 1 report [R]. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A & M University System, 2002.
[28]
Dawie M, Jacobsz SW. Optimal placement of reinforcement in piggyback landfill liners [J]. Geotextiles & Geomembranes, 2018, 46 (3): 327-337.
[29]
Shrestha R. Soil Mixing: A Study on ‘Brusselian Sand’ Mixed with Slag Cement Binder [D]. PhD diss., Master Dissertation, University of Ghent, University of Brussle, 2008.
[30]
Alaye QE, Ling XZ, Tankpinou YS, Ahlinhan MF, Luo J, Alaye MH. Enhancing performance of soil using lime and precluding landslide in Benin (West Africa) [J]. Journal of Central South University. 2019, 26 (11): 3066-86.
[31]
Huang C C, Tatsuoka F. Bearing capacity of reinforced horizontal sandy ground [J]. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 1990, 9 (1): 51-82.
[32]
Dash S K. Influence of relative density of soil on performance of geocell-reinforced sand foundations [J]. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2010, 22 (5): 533–538.
[33]
Dash S K, Sireesh S, Sitharam T. Model studies on circular footing supported on geocell reinforced sand underlain by soft clay [J]. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 2003, 21 (4): 197–219.
[34]
Sitharam T, Sireesh S, Dash S K. Model studies of a circular footing supported on geocell-reinforced clay [J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2005, 42 (2): 693–703.
[35]
Wang J, Zhou J, Cong L. Analysis between numerical and field tests of high fill reinforced widening embankment [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2010, 29 (S1): 2943–2950.
[36]
Walubita, L. F., & Van de Ven, M. F. Stresses and strains in asphalt-surfacing pavements [c]// SATC 2000.
[37]
Hugo F, Fults K, Chen Dar-Hao, Smit ADF, and Bilyeu J, 1999. An Overview of the TxMLS Program and Lessons Learned (GS3-4) [C]// Paper presented at the International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing in Reno, Nevada. October 1999.
[38]
Park DW, Martin AE, Masad E. Effects of nonuniform tire contact stresses on pavement response [J]. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2005, 131 (11): 873-879.
[39]
De Beer M, Kanneier L, and Fisher C. Towards Improved Mechanistic Design of Thin Asphalt Layer Surfacings based on actual Tyre/Pavement Conatact Stress-In-Motion (SIM) Data in South Africa [C]// In Proceedings 1999.
[40]
Jayatilaka R, Lytton R L. Prediction of expansive clay roughness in pavements with vertical moisture barriers [R]. No. FHWA/TX-98/187-28F, 1997.
[41]
Dessouky S H, OH J, Ilias M. Investigation of various pavement repairs in low-volume roads over expansive soil [J]. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2014, 29 (6): 04014146.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186