International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research
Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 10-15
Received: Jan. 3, 2019;
Accepted: Feb. 14, 2019;
Published: Mar. 26, 2019
Views 831 Downloads 147
Zhaojie Cao, Institute of Higher Education Research, Sichuan University of Sciences & Engineering, Zigong, P. R. C.
Roger B. Hill, Department of Career & Information Studies, College of Education, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
Work ethic was a persistent concern in the work place during the 20th century and continues to be important in the 21st century as well. Key components of work ethic include interpersonal skills, initiative, and dependability. This study examined significant changes on the work ethic differences between women and men in two samples of work ethic data collected over a fourteen year period of time. One data set was gathered from 201 working adults in China in 2004 and the other was collected from 248 working adults in 2018. Data was gathered using a Chinese translation of the Occupational Work Ethic Inventory (OWEI) constructed by Petty (1993). Significant differences were measured for initiative between women and men in the 2004 data set, but not in the 2018 data set. No significant differences were detected between women and men for interpersonal skills or dependability in either set of data. A review of literature and discussion is provided to explain changes over time in initiative of Chinese women and men. The findings reveal some interesting insights into the Chinese workforce during a time when the economy has been rapidly developing.
Roger B. Hill,
Work Ethic in China Changes over Time from 2004 to 2018, International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 10-15.
Bengt. Furaker, Kristaina, Hakansson and Jan Ch. Karlssson (2012). Routledge Studies in Management, Organizations and Society: Commitment to Work and Job Satisfaction Studies of Work Orientations. Routledge, 2012.
Jesook Song (2011). New Millennium South Korea Neoliberal Capitalism and Transnational Movements. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, [England]; New York: Routledge, 2010.
Jill Casner-Lotto, Linda Barrington (2006). Are They Really Ready To Work? Employers’ Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century U. S. Workforce. The Conference Board Inc. The partner for 21st Century Skills, Corporate Voices for Working Families, and the Society for Human Resource Management in USA, 2006.
Max Weber. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Economic sociology, 1905.
Xu S, W ang Q. Content and construct of counterproductive work behavior in a Chinese context Social behavior and personality. an international journal, 2013, 41 (6): 921-932.
Cynthia Le Rouge, Anthony Nelson, J. Ellis Blanton. The impact of role stress fit and self-esteem on the job attitudes of IT professionals. Information & Management 43 (2006) 928-938.
M. R. Merrens, J. B. Garrett (1975). The Protestant ethic scale as a predictor of repetitive work performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975 (60), 125–127.
J. Greenberg (1977). The protestant work ethic and reactions to negative performance evaluations on a laboratory task. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1977 (62), 682–690.
M. R. Blood (1969). Work values and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1969 (53), 456–459.
Marion Hersh (2017). Professional Ethics and Social Responsibility: Military Work and Peace building. IFAC Papers On Line 50-1 (2017) 10592–10602.
Berry, L. R., & Glenn, R. E. (2004). The ABC’s of a good work ethic. Education Digest, 69 (8), 4.
Yahya Safari, Nasrin Yoosefpour. Dataset for assessing the professional ethics of teaching by medical teachers from the perspective of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran (2017), Data in Brief 20 (2018) 1955-1959.
Gitmore, J. (2007). One thing hasn’t changed—hard work pays off. Des Moines Business Record, 25 (46), 33.
Hamid Ebadollahi Chanzanagh, Mahdi Akbarnejad. Do women have lower work ethic in an Islamic society? A case-study in Iran. 2011 2nd International Conference on Humanities, Historical and Social Sciences, IACSIT Press, Singapore, 2011 (17), 133-137.
John P. Meriac a, Taylor L. Poling, David J. Woehr. Are there gender differences in work ethic? An examination of the measurement equivalence of the multidimensional work ethic profile. The Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, 2009 (47), 209–213.
DʹArcy A. Becker & Ingrid Ulstad (2007). Gender Differences in Student Ethics: Are Females Really More Ethical? Plagiary: Cross-Disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification, 77-91.
Elizue, D. (1994). Gender and work values: A comparative analysis. Journal of Social Psychology, 134 (2), 201-212.
Petty, G. C., & Hill, R. B. (1994). Are women and men different? A study of the occupational work ethic. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 19 (1), 71-89.
F. Stanford Wayne (1989). An instrument to measure adherence to the Protestant Ethic and contemporary work values. Journal of Business Ethic, 793-804.
Furnham, A. & Muhiudeen, C. (1984). The protestant work ethic in Britain and Malaysia. Journal of social Psychology, 122, 157-161.
Miller, D. (1981). Differences in the protestant work ethic values of selected freshman and senior students at a land grant university. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Oregon State University.
David J. Cherrington. (1980). The work ethic: Working values and values that work. New York. Amacon. Cherrrington, D. J. 1980, 45
Hill, R. B., & Petty, G. C. (1995). A new look at selected employability skills: A factor analysis of the occupational work ethic. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 20 (4), 59-73.
Eisenberger, R. (1989). Blue Monday: the loss of the work ethic in America. New York: Paragon House.
Michael J. Miller，David J. Woehr & Natasha Hudspeth (2002). MONOGRAPH: The Meaning and Measurement of Work Ethic: Construction and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior 2002 (60), 451–489.
John T. Parkhurst, Matthew S. Fleisher, Christopher H. Skinner, David J. Woehr, Meredith L. Hawthorn-Embree. Assignment choice, effort, and assignment completion: Does work ethic predict those who choose higher-effort assignments? Learning and Individual Differences 2011 (21), 575–579.
Liu Jing (2011). A Research on the Women Workers Discrimination Phenomenon. Journal of Legal System and Society, 2011 (15), 188.
D. Arcy A. Becker & Ingrid Ulstad (2007). Gender Differences in Student Ethics: Are Females Really More Ethical? Plagiary: Cross-Disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification, 77-91.
Mary Stergiou-Kita, Marc Lafrance, Cheryl Pritlove. Examining theoretical approaches to men and masculinity in the context of high-risk work: Applications, benefits and challenges (2017), Safety Science Safety Science 96 (2017) 150-160.
Steve Minter. (2012). U. S., China Headed on Different Manufacturing Trade Paths. manufacturing export gap between U.S. and China continues to grow, MAPI reports, Mar. 5, 2012.
LV Hong-fen, YU Cen (2012), Research on Competitiveness and Complementarity of Bilateral Trade between China and Brazil, Journal of International Trade, 2012, 56-64
Hill R. B. (1996). Work ethic differences in vocational education students and full-time employed workers. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 21 (3), 13-29.
Petty, G. C., & Hill, R. B. (2005). Work ethic characteristics: Perceived work ethics of supervisors and workers. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 42 (2), 1-16.
JIN Fenghua (2011). A Study on Gender Differences of Job Satisfaction of College Managers. Journal of China Women's University, 2011 (1), 31-36.