Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Fresh Cow’s Milk from Different Regions of Sudan
American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry
Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 8-14
Received: Sep. 3, 2018; Accepted: Sep. 14, 2018; Published: Oct. 17, 2018
Views 1350      Downloads 195
Authors
Mawia Hassan Elsaim, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Abdulatif Alhamed University of Technology, Merowe, Sudan; Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China
Yahya Ali, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Abdulatif Alhamed University of Technology, Merowe, Sudan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Heavy metals considered as the most important contamination due to the industrialization and have the influence on its existence in milk and dairy products. Milk is a very important component of human diet. The presence of heavy metals in milk at high concentration may significant health problem. The present study is achieved to investigate the concentration of some heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in fresh cow’s milk samples available in north Sudan-Merowe using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The elements, Cd, Cr, and Pd were not detected in all the fresh cow’s milk samples under study. There is no significant in the mean concentration of Cu and Zn between the fresh cow’s milk samples of three farms where as that of Zn is significantly. Our results indicated that the mean concentration of Cu, in A 0.111, in B 0.180 and in C 0.130 mg\l respectively. However Zn in A 1.13, in B 1.42 and C 1.62 mg\l respectively. The study also focuses on prevalence of heavy metals to compared with ARD value and also with corresponding values of different countries available in literature. Our result of this paper it is so strong to meager the concentration of heavy metals and show an important.
Keywords
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Fresh Cow’s Milk, Heavy Metals, Pollution, Merowe
To cite this article
Mawia Hassan Elsaim, Yahya Ali, Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Fresh Cow’s Milk from Different Regions of Sudan, American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 8-14. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaic.20180202.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Abduikhaliq, A., Swaileh, k. M., Hussein, R. M., Matani, M., 2012, Levels of metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and fe) in cow's milk, dairy products and hen's eggs from the west bank, Palestine., lnt Food Res J., 19 (3), 1089-1094.
[2]
Nasr, l. N., Sallam, A. A. A., Abd El-khair, A. A., 2007, metals in fresh cow's milk at Gharbia governorate, Egypt., JAAl Sci., 7 (20), 3038-3044.
[3]
Clarissa,. S. P. D. C, Andrea, F. A., Leandro, R. D. C., Jurandir, R. S. D., JezW. B. B., and Jose G. D., 2010, Toxic metals (Pb and Cd) and their respective antagonists (Ca and zn) in infant formulas and milk marketed in Brasilia, Brazil., lnt J Environ Res public Health., 7, 4062-4077.
[4]
Sabiaa, S., D"Emiliob, M., Macchiatob, M., Anastasioc, a., Ragostad, M., Painoe, S., 2005, Metal Levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy., Environmental Research, 99, 48-5.
[5]
Ayar, A. S. D., and Akin, N., 2009, the trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey., Environ Monit Assess., 152, 1-12.
[6]
Qin, L. Q., Wang, X. P., Li, W., Tong, W. J., 2009, The mineral and heavy metals in cow’s milk from China and Japan., J Health Sci., 55 (2), 300-305.
[7]
Khan, Z. I., Ahmad, K., Bayat, A., Mukhtar, M. K., Sher, M., 2013, Evaluation of lead concentration in pasture and milk; A possible risk for livestock and public health Pakistan J Zool., 45 (1), 79-84.
[8]
Li, Y., McCrory, D. F., Powel, J. M., Saam, H., Jackson –Smith, D., 2005, A survey of selected heavy metal concentrations in Wisconsin Dairy Feeds. J Dairy Sci., 88., 2911-2922.
[9]
Farid, S. M., Enani, M. A., Wajid, S. A., 2004, Determination of trace elements in cow's milk in Saudi Arabia., JKAU: Eng Sci., 15 (2), 131-140.
[10]
Enb, A., Abou Donia, M. A., Abd -Rabou, N. S., Abou-Arab, A. A. K., El-Senaity, M. H., 2009, Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals behavior during processing of milk products., Global Veterinaria., 3 (3), 268-275.
[11]
Asadi Dizaji, A., Eshaghi, A., AghajanzadehGolshani, A., Nazeradl, K., Y ari, A. A., Hoda, S., 2012, Evaluation and determination of toxic metals (Lead and Cadmium) in cow milk collected from East Azerbaijan, Iran., Eur J Exp Biol., 2 (1), 261-265.
[12]
Ajai, A. I., Ochigbo, S. S., Ndamitso, M. M., Olaoluwajuwon, J., 2012, Proximate and mineral compositions of different raw cow's milks in Minna., Euro J ApplEngSci Res., 1 (1), 23-29.
[13]
Anetta, L., Peter, M., Agnieszka, G., Jozef, G., 2012, Concentration of selected elements in raw and ultra heat treated com milk., J MicrobiolBiotechnol Food Sci., 2 (2), 795-802.
[14]
Steijns, J. M., 2001, Milk ingredients as nutraceuticals., Int J Dairy Technol., 54, 81-88.
[15]
Licata, P., Trombetta, D., Cristani, M., Giofre, F., Martino, D., Calo, M., Naccari, F., 2004, Levels of "toxic" and "essential" metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy., Environ Int., 30, 1-6.
[16]
Singh, A., Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., Marshall, F. M., 2010, Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India., Food ChemToxicol., 48, 611-619.
[17]
Soylak, M., Saracoglu, S., Tuzen, M., Mendil, D., 2005, Determination of trace metals in mushroom samples from kayseri, Turkey., Food Chem., 92, 649-652.
[18]
Tuzen, M., Saracoglu, S., Soylak, M., 2008, Evaluation of trace element contents of powdered beverages from Turkey., J Food Nutr Res., 47, 120-124.
[19]
Mingorance, M. D., 2002, Focused microwave-assisted digestion of vegetal materials for the determination of essential mineral nutrients., Anal Bioanal Chem., 373, 153-158.
[20]
Arain, M. Kazi, T. G., Jamali, M. K., Afridi, H. I., Jalbani, N., Memon, A. R., 2007, Ultrasound-assisted pseudodigestion for toxic metals determination in fish muscles followed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry: multivariate strategy., J AOAC Int., 90, 1118-1127.
[21]
Shah, A, Q., Kazi, T. G., Arain, M. b., Jamali, M. K., Afridi, H, I., Jalbani, N., J. A., Sarfraz, R. A., Ansari, R, 2009, Comparison of electro thermal and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of total arsenic in broiler chicken., food Chem., 113, 1351-1355.
[22]
Jalbani, N., Kazi, T. G., Jamali, M. K., Arain, B. M., Afridi, H. I., Baloch, A., 2007, Evaluation of aluminum contents in different bakery foods by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer., J Food Compos Anal., 20, 226-231.
[23]
Demirel, S., Tuzen, M., Saracoglu, S., Soyiak, M., 2008, Evaluation of various digestion procedures for trace element contents of some food materials., J Hazard Mater., 152, 1020-1026.
[24]
Soyeurt, H., Bruwier, D., Romnee, J. M., Gengler, N., Bertozzi, C., Veselko, D., Dardenne, P., 2009, Potential estimation of major mineral contents in cow milk using mid-infrared spectrometry., J Dairy Sci., 92, 2444-2454.
[25]
Ehling, S., Tefera, S., Earl, R., Cole, S., 2010, Comparison of analytical methods to determine sodium content of low-sodium foods., J AOAC Int., 93, 628-637.
[26]
Ogabiela E. E., Udiba, U. U., Adesina, O. B., Hammuel, C., Ade-Ajayi, F. A., Yebpella, G. G., Mmereole U. J., Abdullahi, M., 2011, Assessment of metal levels in fresh milk from cows grazed around Challawa Industrial Estate of Kano, Nigeria., J Basic ApplSci Res., 1 (7), 533-538.
[27]
Abd-El Aal, S. F. A., A wad, E. I., Kamal, R. M. K. M., 2012, Prevalence of some trace and toxic elements in raw and sterilized cow's milk., J Am S ci., 8 (9), 753-761.
[28]
Starka, K., Wojciechowska-Mazurek, M., Mania, M., Brulinska-Ostrowska, E., Biernat, U., Karlowski, K., 2011, Noxious elements in milk and milk products in Poland., polish J of Environ Stud., 20 (4), 1043-1051.
[29]
Derakhshesh, A. M., and Rahimi, E., 2012, Determination of lead residue in raw cow milk from different regions of Iran by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry., Am-Eur J Toxicol Sci., 4 (1), 16-19.
[30]
Pilarczyk, R., Wojcik, J., Czerniak, P., Sablik, P., Pilarczyk, B., Tomza-Marciniak, A., 2013, Concentrations of toxic heavy metals and trace elements in raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from organic farm., Environ Monit Assess 185, 8383-8392.
[31]
Munoz, E., and Palmero, S., 2004, Determination of heavy metals in milk by potentiometric stripping analysis using a home-made flow cell., Food Control., 15, 635-641.
[32]
Masotti, F., Erba, D., De Noni, I., Pellegrino, L., 2012, Rapid determination of sodium in milk and milk products by capillary zone electrophoresis., J Dairy Sci., 95, 2812-2881.
[33]
Tripathi, R. M., Raghunath, R., Sastry, V. N., Krishnamoorthy, T. M., 1999, Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products., Sci Total Environ., 227, 9.229-235.
[34]
Sola-Larranaga, C., and Navarro-Blasco, I., 2009, Chemometric analysis of minerals and trace elements in raw cow milk from the community of Navarra, Spain., Food Chem., 112, 189-196.
[35]
Solis, C., Isaac-Olive, K., Mireles, A., Vidal-Hernandez., M., 2009, Determination of trace metals in cow' s milk from waste water irrigated areas in Central Mexico by chemical treatment coupled to PIXE., Microchem J., 91, 9-12.
[36]
Hussain, Z., Nazir, A., Shafique, U., Salmen, M., 2010, Comparative study for the determination of metals in milk samples using flame-AAS and EDTA complexometric titration., J Sci RES,., 2 (1), 9-14.
[37]
Sikiric, M., B rajenovic, N., Pavlovic, I., Havranek, J. L, plavljanic, N., 2003, Determination of metals in cow, s milk by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry., Czech J Anim Sci., 48 (11), 481-486.
[38]
Tajkarimi, M., M,. Ahmadifaghih, M., poursoltani, H., Salah Nejad, A., Motallebi, A, A., Mahdavi, H,. 2008, lead residue levels in raw milk from different regions of lran, nFood Control., 19, 495-498.
[39]
Ackland and Michalczyk, 2006 Zinc deficiency and its inherited disorders –Areview. Genes and nutrition 1; 41-50.
[40]
Soares, V. A., Kus, M. M., Peixoto, A. C., Carrocci, J. S., Salazar, R. F Filho, H. I (2009). Determination of nutritional and toxic elements in pasteurized bovine milk from Vale do Paraiba region (Brazil). Food Control, 21: 45-49.
[41]
Allen, (1998) Zinc and micronutrient supplements for children. Am J CLinNutr., 68; 4495-4498.
[42]
42-Shankar A. H., and Prasad, A. S., 1998. Zine and immune function: the biology basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr, 68: 447-463.
[43]
Fahmida, U., Rumaawas, j., Utomo, B., patmonodewo, S., and Schultink, W., (2006). Zinc-iron, but not zinc-alone supplementation, `increased linear growth of stunted infants with low hemoglobin. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr., 16: 301-309.
[44]
Zraly et al., 2008Z., Pisarikova B., TrekovaM and Navratilova M. (2007); Effect of humic acid on lead accumulation in chicken organs and muscles, acta, 77; 439-445.
[45]
Spivey, M. R., (2004). Assessment of cadmium, lead and vanadium, status of large animals as related to the human food chain. Food and Drug Administration, Washing-Dc. Journal of Animal Science, 65: 1744-1752.
[46]
Agneta, O, Palminger, 1., Sundberg, J., and petersson, K., (1998). Risk assessment inrelation to neonatal metal exposure, Analyst, 123; 19-23.
[47]
Canfield, R. L., Henderson, C. R., Cory-Slechta, D. A., Cox, C., Jusko, T. A., and Lanphear, B. p., (2003). Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine, 384: 1517-1526.
[48]
Annette, 1996 "Spivvey, 2004.
[49]
Bielicka A,. Bojanowska, I,. andWisniewski. A., (2005). Two faces of chromium pollutant and bioelement, polish journal of environmental studies 14; 5-10.
[50]
Sandra, M., Paul, A., Heema., S, and Sam (1999) Chromium in food, nutrition and health an.
[51]
Cortes, E., Das, H., A., Tarafdar, D. A. and vasconccllos, B. A., Toxic heavy Metals and other Trace Elements in Foodstuff from 12 different countries. Biological Trace Element Research, 20; 415-422 (1994).
[52]
Ostapczuk, P., Valenta, P., Rutzel, H., and Nurnberg, H. W., Determination of Heavy Metal in Environmental Samples. Sci. of Total Environ, 60: 1-16 (1987).
[53]
Tripathi, R. M.; Raghunath, R. and Krishnamoorthy, T. M., Dietary intake of heavy metals in Bombay city, India, Sci. of Total Environ, 208: 49-159 (1997).
[54]
Krishnamoorty. T. M, and tripathi, R. M., measurements and modeling in environmental pollution BARC news letterindia 179; 3-12 (1998)
[55]
SEHUHMACHER, M., domingo, jl. andcorbella. j. dietary intake of copper. Chromium and zinc in Tarragona province spainsci of total environ., 132; 3-10 (1983).
[56]
Bulinski, r., bloniarz, j. and libel, B., trace element content in milk and some milk products. bromate. chem toksykol., xxv; 327-331 (1992).
[57]
Lopez., A., Collins., w. f. and Williams, H. L. essential elements in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk, j. dairy sci., 68; 1878-1886 (1995).
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186