Childhood Mortality Adjusting for Cluster Effect Study in Ghana Demographic Health Survey
International Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications
Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2017, Pages: 95-102
Received: Mar. 7, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 5, 2017;
Published: Nov. 28, 2017
Views 1804 Downloads 75
Kankam Stephen, Department of Mathematics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
Nana Kena Frimpong, Department of Mathematics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
Kofi Adagbodzo Samuel, Department of Mathematics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
In Ghana Demographic Health Survey (GDHS), information is collected on the demographic characteristics and health status which is representative sample of the entire population. The backbone for the survey is enumeration areas (EA), clusters which was done using two-stage probabilistic approach. This paper illustrates analysis of childhood mortality by adjusting for cluster effect using Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE). Ghana Demographic Survey Data -2008 (GDHS-2008) was used for the analysis. GEE model with three working correlation matrices independence, unstructured and exchangeable were adjusted for the data set. Logistic regression models and statistical tools were used to find association and select significant variables on childhood mortality. Age of mother, Total birth in last five years and region of residence were significance determinants of incidence of childhood mortality. We recommend that there should be clear policy and programs for educating, campaigning and increasing and improving health facilities. Suggestions for further study of childhood mortality were also in this paper.
Nana Kena Frimpong,
Kofi Adagbodzo Samuel,
Childhood Mortality Adjusting for Cluster Effect Study in Ghana Demographic Health Survey, International Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2017, pp. 95-102.
Abuqumar, M., Danny, C., & Fred, L. (2010). Impact of parental education on infant mortality in Gaza Strip,. Full Length Research Paper.
Akoto, & Tambashe. (2000, January 17). S0cioeconomic inequalities of infant and child mortality among rural and urban areas in sub-saharan. Retrieved 2016, from.:. http://www.demogr.mpg.de/Papers/workshops/020619_paper01.pd.
Balk, P., & Neuman, S. G. (2003). Analysis of Childhood mortality in West Africa Based on their DGHS data. African Indepth Journal.
Becares, L., Cormack, D., & Harris, R. (2013). Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on Maori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Soc Sci Med,. Social Science & Medicine, 88 (PMCID: PMC3725420), 76–82.
Becher, H. (2010). Analysis of Mortality Clustering at member HDSSs within the INDEPTH Network-an important public health issue. Global Health action Supplement, 3(Sup 1) (PMCID: PMC2935924), 3-7.
Das Gupta, M. (1990). Death Clustering Mohers Education and Child Mortality. 489-505: Population Studies.
Espo, M. (2002). Chiild Mortality in Malaw from environmental factors. Health Transition Review.
GDHS, G. D. (2008). Demographic Health Survey. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service.
Heisler, E. J. (2012). Disparities in child mortality, racial factor. Congressional Research Service, 8 (R41378), 1-29.
Hill, K., & Mahy, M. (2001). childhood mortality in Kenya:Examination of trend and determinants inthe late 1980s andmid 1990s. USA: John Hopkins University/macro Internayional Inc.
Hobcraft, J. (1992). Fertility Pattern and Child survival, Comperative analysis. Population Bulletin of the United nation, 1-31.
Hogan et al. (2009). Muiltivariate analysis.
Hosseinpoor. (2005). Socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in Iran and across Its Province. Technical Report, Bullitin of WHO.
Jacoby, H., & Wang, L. (2003). Infant mortality in Zambia Socioeconomic and demographic correlates. Washington DC: World Bank.
Johanna, S. (2016). Determinant of Under 5 in Uganda. Masters Thesis, University of Gottenburg, Uganda, 1-30.
Kanmiki, E. W., & Bawah, A. A. (2014). Socio- economic and demographic determinant of under-five mortality in rural northern Ghana. BioMed Central.
McCullagh, P., & Nelder, J. (1989). generlised linear model. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Mosley, W. H., & Chen, L. C. (1984). An Analytical framework for the study of child survival in developng countries. Population and Development Review.
Mutunga, C. J. (2004). Environmental Determinant of Child mortality. Kenya Institute of Public policy.
Obed, E. A., Owusu, A., & Nartey, C. Z. (2010). Custering childhood mortality in Kintampo. Global Health Suppliment action.
Ogada, O. (2014). SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN. Unpublished thesis, University of Nairobi.
Rafiqul, I., Moazzem, H., Mizanur, R., & Mosharaf, H. (2013). Impact of Socio-demographic Factors on child Mortality in Bangladesh: An Multivariate Approach. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 34-39.
Sastry, N. (1997). Community Characteristics, individual and household attributing to under-five mortality. Working Paper series, 13-96.
Singh, R., & Tripathi, V. (2013). Maternall factor contributing to under- five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in india. Spingplu.
UNICEF. (2009). Technical Report:State of Childern. New York, NY 10017, USA: 3 United Nations Plaza.
UNICEF. (2010). Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition. New York, NY 10017, USA: United Nations Children’s Fund.
Wang, L. (2003). Determinant of Child Mortality: Empirical Finding from demographic and health Survey.
WHO, W. H. (2000). Technical Report. Geneva: World Health Organis.
Woldemicael, G. (2000). The effect of water supply and sanitation on Chiid mortality in Urban areas. Journal of Biosocial Science, 32, 207-227.
Yeboah, D. (2014). Classification tree as a tool for decomposing inequalities in under-five mortality in Ghana. Master Thesis, KNUST.
Zeger, S., & Liang, Y. (1986). Longitudinal data Analysis Using Generalised Model. Biometrika, 13-22.