International Journal of Sustainable Development Research
Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 30-40
Received: Mar. 27, 2019;
Accepted: May 9, 2019;
Published: Jul. 1, 2019
Views 667 Downloads 97
Fernanda Nicolle Pinheiro Nicolai, Thematic Network in Materials Engineering (REDEMAT), Ouro Preto State University, Ouro Preto City, Brazil
Sebastiana Luiza de Bragança Lana, Thematic Network in Materials Engineering (REDEMAT), Ouro Preto State University, Ouro Preto City, Brazil; Department of Post-Graduation in Design/School of Design of Minas Gerais State, Minas Gerais State University (UEMG), Belo Horizonte City, Brazil
Electronic waste (e-waste) is today the fastest growing solid waste in the world, due to its unique characteristics like planned obsolescence, high technology and a fast growing consumer market. It can contain over 100 highly toxic and potentially hazardous substances to human health and to the environment. However, e-waste is a valuable secondary source of high quality finite raw minerals suitable for “urban mining” in which the materials contained should not be lost. The recovery materials from e-waste, also called Reverse Logistics (RL), which includes the insertion and application of sustainable Design, is an environmental and commercial measure of great importance that can only bring benefits to all involved. Unconventional pre-treatments techniques to separate gold-rich components and other parts of e-waste from motherboards, Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) and cell phone plates has not been extensively explored in literature. The aim of this paper is to describe a set of thermo-mechanical and manual techniques in pilot scale to separate gold-rich parts from the others of the e-waste mentioned above. Another goal of this research is to obtain the total mass of gold deposited on the three samples of selected connector tabs from PCBs. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique was performed and the results were analyzed. With this procedure, the total gold mass could be evaluated.
Fernanda Nicolle Pinheiro Nicolai,
Sebastiana Luiza de Bragança Lana,
Urban Mining: A Process Designed to Recover Au from E-waste, International Journal of Sustainable Development Research.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2019, pp. 30-40.
Feng Wang, Jaco Huisman, Christina E. M. Meskers, Mathias Schluep, Ab Stevels, Christian Hagelüken. The Best-of-2-Worlds philosophy: Developing local dismantling and global infrastructure network for sustainable e-waste treatment in emerging economies. Waste Management, v.32, p. 2134–2146, 2012. http://www.ewasteguide.info/files/Wang_2012_Bo2W_0.pdf.
Camila Reis de Oliveira, Andréa Moura Bernardes, Annelise Engel Gerbase. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation. Waste Management, Brazil, v. 32, p. 1592–1610, 2012.
Cristian Hagelüken, Umicore Metals Refining AG & Co. Improving metal returns and eco-efficiency in electronics recycling – a holistic approach for interface optimization between pre-processing and integrated metals smelting. IEEE International Symposium on Electronics & Environment. San Francisco, v. 8-11, p. 218-223, May of 2006. DOI: 10.1109/ISEE.2006.1650064.
Pejman Hadi, Chao Ning, Weiyi Ouyang, Meng Xu, Carol S. K. Lin, Gordon McKay. Toward environmentally-benign utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier and precursor. Waste Management, Hong Kong, v. 35, p. 236–246, 2015.
Map of the United States with Legislation. http://www.ecycleclearinghouse.org/content.aspx?pageid=10.
Martin Goosey, Rod Kellner. A Scoping Study End-of-Life Printed Circuit Boards. Department of Trade and Industry, UK. Shipley Europe Limited. http://www.cfsd.org.uk/seeba/TD/reports/PCB_Study.pdf.
Jens Brobech Legarth, Leo Alting, Gian Luca Baldo. Sustainability issues in Circuit Board Recycling. Proceedings of the Ieee International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment. Denmark, p. 126-131, 1995. DOI: 10.1109/ISEE.1995.514963.
Jirang Cui, Lifeng Zhang. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials: Science Direct, Norway, v. 158, p. 228 – 256 February 8 of 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.02.001.
M. C. Vats, S. K. Singh. Assessment of gold and silver in assorted mobile phone printed circuit boards (PCBs): Original article. Waste Management, India, v. 45, p. 280–288, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.06.002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26112260.
Craig R. Carter, Lisa M. Ellram. Reverse Logistics: a review of the literature and framework for future investigation. International Journal of Business Logistics, Tampa, v. 19, n. 1, p. 85-103, January of 1998.
Ministry of Environment & Forests Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi. Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of E-Waste. As approved vide MoEF letter No. 23-23/2007-HSMD, 12 of March of 2008. http://www.moef.nic.in/divisions/hsmd/guidelines-e-waste.pdf.
William D. Callister Jr, Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais. Fifth Edition, 2002. Rio de Janeiro: Editora LTC – Livros Técnicos e Científicos Editora S. A., chapter 1, p. 1-5.
Patent US4426225 A: Gold recovery method - 1984, 4,426,225. http://www.google.com.br/patents/US4426225.
Association of Paper Collectors, Cardboards and Recyclable Materials (ASMARE) in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. http://asmare.org/.
Shunli Zhang, Eric Forssberg. Mechanical separation-orients characterization of electronic scrap. Resources, conservation and recycling, number.21, p. 248 – 269, 1997. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449 (97)00039-6.
Tyco Electronics Corporation. AMP Incorporated, Technical Report. Golden Rules: Guidelines For The Use Of Gold On Connector Contacts. 2004. http://www.te.com/documentation/whitepapers/pdf/aurulrep.pdf.
Prabjit Singh, Larry Palmer and Mark Marnell, Robert Garner. 1960’s SMS Card Connector Tabs. Materials and Process Engineering, S&T Group Materials Laboratory, IBM Systems and Technology Group, IBM Almaden Research Center, Americas Service Delivery – EUS. IBM Corporation. September 7th of 2007. http://ibm-1401.info/SMS_Tabs_IBM_Report_Dec2007.pdf.
Gold price. http://goldprice.org/.