Key Factors That Influence Sustainability of Community Based Advocacy Groups After Phaseout of Donor Support
International Journal of Sustainable Development Research
Volume 6, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages: 73-79
Received: Dec. 7, 2020;
Accepted: Dec. 15, 2020;
Published: Dec. 25, 2020
Views 44 Downloads 35
William Kholongo, School of Business and Economics, Atlantic International University, Honolulu, USA
Edward Lambert, School of Business and Economics, Atlantic International University, Honolulu, USA
Emmanuel Kaunda, Faculty of Development Studies, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi
Sam Katengeza, Faculty of Development Studies, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi
Anthony Malunga, Research Unit, Generation Institute of Gender and Development, Lilongwe, Malawi
It is the wish of every stakeholder to see that donor supported structures such as community-based advocacy groups (CBAGs) continue to operate beyond donor support. Various studies show that donor-initiated structures which are often instituted at huge costs experience difficulties with regards to sustainability. This is because such structures reportedly cease to operate after their initial funding runs out resulting into wastage of human and financial resources that could have been invested effectively. However, there is dearth of information regarding the extent to which donor-initiated advocacy groups continue to serve the grassroots, years after phasing out of the donor support. The present study investigated the sustainability of CBAGs, taking a case of advocacy groups initiated and supported by DanChurchAid (DCA) in Malawi. Specifically, the study identified key factors that influence continued operation of CBAGs after years of donor cessation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used to collect data from 226 respondents and 16 CBAGs sampled from Karonga, Dowa, Lilongwe, Mwanza and Neno districts from May to June 2020. Secondary data provided preliminary information and cross-validation of information. Descriptive statistics, logit regression and Critical Content Analysis were used to analyze the data. The study identified nine factors that are essential for continued operation of CBAGs namely age of the respondent, marital status of respondent, responsiveness of duty bearers, availability of basic systems and procedures, unity among members, community contribution, linkages and networking, fundraising skills, and availability of exit strategy. It was also noted that need to end corruption, increased prevalence of community problems, and expectation for future benefits were key motivators for members to continue serving in the CBAGs, years after donor support. The study recommends the need to encourage supporting organisations to develop exit strategies which would help to concretize the phasing out plan for supporting the CBAGs. Donors and well-wishers should consider investing in the weak institutional areas of the CBAGs such as organization registration, fundraising and organization systems and procedures which are critical to the institutionalization of the CBAGs. Finally, supporting organisations should design integrated advocacy interventions that achieves advocacy agenda without compromising the personal needs of the CBAGs members. This would require supporting the members with livelihoods activities which will in turn offer immediate needs as the members pursue advocacy work.
Key Factors That Influence Sustainability of Community Based Advocacy Groups After Phaseout of Donor Support, International Journal of Sustainable Development Research.
Vol. 6, No. 4,
2020, pp. 73-79.
Leroux K and Carr J., (2007). Explaining Local Government Cooperation on Public Works: Evidence From Michigan. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087724X07302586.
CIVICUS. (2018). State of Civil Society Report 2018. Year in Review: Top Ten Trends. Retrieved from https://www.civicus.org/documents/reports-and-publications/SOCS/2018/socs-2018-overview_top-ten-trends.pdf.
Grimsley S, 2017. Advocacy Groups: Definition & Examples. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/advocacy-groups-definition-examples.html.
GoM. (2017). Malawi Decentralisation Policy, 1998 rev 2017. Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. Government Press.
GoM. (2010). Local Government Act, 2010, Act No 17 of 2010. Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. Government Press.
Hofisi, C and Chizimba, M, (2013). The Sustainability of Donor Funded Projects in Malawi. 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n6p705. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.
Okun, M. (2009). Factors affecting the sustainability of donors funded projects in arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya: A case of Marsabit Central District. A Research project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University. [ir-library.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/123456789/3494/3/Okun+Martin+Adera.pdf] site visited on 20 February 2017.
Chiweza A, (2015). Power to the People: A Guide for Public Expenditure Tracking for Local Governments. www.odi.org.
ADB, (2010). Special Evaluation Study on Post - Completion Sustainability of Asian Development Bank Assisted Projects. Asian Development Bank Independent Evaluation Department. [http://www.oecd.org/derec/adb/47186868.pdf]. Site visited on13/7/2013.
IFAD, (2007). United Republic of Tanzania: Participatory Irrigation Development Programme (PIDP), Completion Evaluation, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 46pp. [https://www.ifad.org/evaluation/ reports/ppa/tags/ tanzania/1086/1860133] site visited on 13 July 2014.
World Bank, (2012). The World Bank Annual Report 2012: Volume 1. Main Report. World Bank Annual Report. Washington, D.C. 68 pp.
Kamau, G. B. (2014). Factors influencing successful implementation of community-based projects: A Case of Food Security Projects in Kiambu County. A research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of a degree in Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management of the University of Nairobi. 2014.
Oino, P. G., Towett, G., Kirui, K. K. and Luvega, C. (2015). The dilemma in sustainability of community-based projects in Kenya, Global Journal of Advanced Research 2 (4): 757–768. [gjar.org/publishpaper/vol2issue4/d177r18.pdf] site visited on 17 June 2016.
World Bank, (2005). The effectiveness of World Bank Support for Community-based and Driven Development: An OED Evaluation. 199pp.
Savaya, R., Elsworth, G. and Rogers, P. (2009). Projected sustainability of innovative social programs. Evaluation Review 33 (2): 189–205. [http://erx.sagepub.com]. Published 2014. Corpus ID: 130800457.
Lungo M, Mavole J and Martin O (2017) Determinants of Project Sustainability beyond Donor Support: Case of Caritas Norway Supported Governance Project in Mansa Diocese, Zambia. Arts Social Sci J 8: 278. doi: 10.4172/2151-6200.1000278.
Nthenge F, (2014). Factors influencing sustainability of donor funded projects: a case of Wenje water projects in Tana river.
Mugambi M, (2016). Donor funding practices and financial sustainability of donor aided projects in world vision Kenya. University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Amosa D, (2010). Local government and good governance: The case of Samoa. School of Management and Public Administration University of the South Pacific. http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ojs/index.php/cjlg.
O’Neil T, and Cammack D,. (2014). Fragmented governance and local service delivery in Malawi. Shaping policy for development. www.odi.org.
Boris, E, and R Mosher-Williams. (1998). “Nonprofit Advocacy Organizations: Assessing the Definitions, Classifications, and Data.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27 (December): 488–506.
Delibashzade R,. (2016). The Role of Interest Groups: Best Practices, Case Studies, and Lessons Learned. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2086.8247.
Chasukwa M, Chiweza A and Chikapa-Jamali M,. (2013). Public Participation in Local Councils in Malawi in the Absence of Local Elected Representatives-Political Eliticism or Pluralism? DO - 10.1177/0021909613509218. Journal of Asian and African Studies.
Kamruzzaman, P, White, S, (2018). Empowerment and Community Participation. 10.1002/9781118924396.wbiea2062.
Lentfer J, (2015). Five reasons funding should go directly to local NGOs. International Development Exchange. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/nov/13/.
Bourguignon, F and Platteau, J, (2014). The Hard Challenge of Aid Coordination. 10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.12.011.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.
NSO, (2016). Malawi Demographic Household Survey, Government of Malawi.
World Bank, (2019). Factsheet for Malawi. World Bank Group. www.worldbank.org.
Marin, M. (2018). A Moral Theory of Solidarity. By Avery Kolers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. 208p. $80.00 cloth. Perspectives on Politics, 16 (3), 802-803. doi: 10.1017/S1537592718001603.
Levinger, B and McLeod, J. (2002). Hello, I Must Be Going: Ensuring Quality Services and Sustainable Benefits through Well-Designed Exit Strategies. Education Development Center, Inc. Center for Organizational Learning and Development (COLAD), 55 Chapel Street Newton, MA 02458. 24pp.
Davis, N. and Sankar, M., (2006). A Practice Review of UNESCO‟s Exit and Transition Strategies. [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001494/149459e.pdf]. Site visited on 30.3.2011.
Kilewo G and Frumence G,. (2015). Factors that hinder community participation in developing and implementing comprehensive council health plans in Manyoni District, Tanzania. Glob Health Action. 2015; 8: 10.3402/gha.v8.26461.
Goodman, R. M., Speers, M. A., McLeroy, K., Fawcett, S., Kegler, M., Parker, E., Wallerstein, N. (1998) "Identifying and defining the dimensions of community capacity to provide a basis for measurement. Health Education & Behavior, 25 (3): 258–278.