American Journal of Applied Scientific Research
Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2015, Pages: 1-5
Received: Sep. 9, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 16, 2015;
Published: Sep. 18, 2015
Views 7105 Downloads 448
Firas R. Al-Samarai, Dep. Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Abdulkareem A. Al-Kazaz, Dep. Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. The applications of the new generations of molecular markers represent amazing tools for the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better knowledge of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, who are unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques, need to know more about these techniques concerning applications, types, advantages and disadvantages. This review represents an attempt to highlight the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers.This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and its role in specifying the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.
Firas R. Al-Samarai,
Abdulkareem A. Al-Kazaz,
Applications of Molecular Markers in Animal Breeding: A review, American Journal of Applied Scientific Research.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2015, pp. 1-5.
Adams W. T. (1983). Application of isozymes in tree breeding. In S. D. Tanksley and T. J. Orton (eds.), Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, part A, 381–400. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Ajmone-Marsan P, Negrini R, Milanesi E, Bozzi R, Nijman IJ, Buntjer JB, Valentini A, Lenstra JA. (2002). Genetic distances within and across cattle breeds as indicated by biallelic AFLP markers. Anim Genetics, 33:280–286.
Avise JC (1994). Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Becak ML, Becak W, Roberts FL.(1973). Fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Bitgood JJ, Shoffner RN.( 1990). Cytology and cytogenetics. Poult breeding Genet, 22:401–427.
Brumlop S., and Finckh, M.R.(2010). Applications and potentials of marker assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Final report of the F+E project “Applications and Potentials of Smart Breeding” (FKZ 350 889 0020) On behalf of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation December 2010.
Buvanendran V, Finney DJ.(1967). Linkage relationships of egg albumen loci in the domestic fowl. Br Poult Sci., 8:9–13.
Dekkers JC. (2004). Commercial application of marker- and gene-assisted selection in livestock: strategies and lessons. J Anim Sci. 82 E-Suppl: E313-328.
DeYoung RW, Honeycutt RL (2005). The molecular toolbox: genetic techniques in wildlife ecology and management. J Wildl Manage 69:1362–1384.
Drinkwater RD, Hetzel DJS.(1991). Application of molecular biology to understanding genotype-environment interactions in livestock production. In Proc. of an International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in Animal Production and Health. Vienna: IAEA, FAO; 437–452. 15–19 April.
Emadi, A.; Crim, MT.; Brotman, DJ. et al. (2010). Analytic validity of genetic tests to identify factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A. Am J Hematol, Vol.85, No.4, (April 2010), pp. 264-270, ISSN 0361-8609.
Ewing B, Green P. (2000). Analysis of expressed sequence tags indicates 35,000 human genes. Nat Genet. 25:232-4.
Fischer, R. A. (1918). The correlation between relatives: the supposition of mendelain inheritance. Transactions of the royal society of Edinburgh. 52:399.
Goodfellow PN. (1992). Variation is now the theme. Nature 359, 777-778.
Hajibabaei M, Janzen DH, Burns JM. (2006). DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA, 103:968–971.
Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, de Waard JR. (2003). Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proc R Soc Biol Sci., 270:313–321.
Hedrick P. (1992). Shooting the RAPDs. Nature 355: 679-680.
Henderson, C. R. (1984). Applications of linear models in animal breeding. Can. Catal. Publ. Data, Univ Guelph, Canada.
Hyperdictionary, (2003). hyperdictionary. Available from: http://www.hyperdictionary.com.
Jonker J, Meurs G, Balner H.(1982). Typing for RhLA-D in rhesus monkeys: II.genetics of the D antigens and their association with DR antigens in a population of unrelated animals. Tissue Antigens, 19:69–78.
Kumar N.S., and Gurusubramanian G.(2011). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and its applications. Sci Vis 11 (3), 116-124.
Lander ES. (1996). The new genomics: global views of biology. Science,274:536–539.
Lynch, M., and Milligan, B.G. (1994). Analysis of population genetic structure with RAPD markers. Molecular Biology., 3:91-99.
Morin P. A., Luikart G., Wayne R. K., and the SNP American Association of Blood Banks, Arlington, workshop group .(2004). SNPs in ecology, evolution VA, USA, pp. 277D280. and conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 208-216.
Nandani K. N. and Thakur,S.K.(2014). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA- a brief review. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 9 (1): 6-13, 2014.
Payseur BA, Cutter AD. (2006). Integrating patterns of polymorphism at SNPs and STRs. Trends Genet. 22:424–429.
Peter G., (2001). An assessment of the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for forensic purposes. Int J Legal Med, 114:204–210.
Rothschild MF, Larson RG, Jacobson C, Pearson P. (1991). PvuII polymorphisms at the porcine oestrogen receptor locus (ESR). Anim Genet. 22(5):448.
Selkoe KA, Toonen RJ (2006). Microsatellites for ecologists: A practical guide to using and evaluating microsatellite markers. Ecol Lett 9:615-629.
Shrimpton, A. E., Robertson, A. (1988). The Isolation of Polygenic Factors Controlling Bristle Score in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Distribution of third chromosome bristle effects within chromosome sections. Genetics 118: 445-459.
Tautz D, Arctander P, Minelli A, Thomas RH: DNA points the way ahead in taxonomy. (2002). Nature, 418:479.
The Bovine HapMap Consortium. (2009). Genome-wide survey of SNP variation uncovers the genetic structure of cattle breeds. Science, 324:528–532.
Van Oppen MJ, Rico C, Turner GF, Hewitt GM (2000). Extensive homoplasy, nonstepwise mutations, and shared ancestral polymorphism at a complex microsatellite locus in Lake Malawi cichlids. Molecular Biology and Evolution.17, 489-498.
Van Wezel IL, Rodgers RJ. (1996). Morphological characterization of bovine primordial follicles and their environment in vivo. Biol Reprod 55:1003–1011.
Varshney, R.K.; Graner, A. & Sorrels, M.E. (2005). Genetic microsatellite markers in plants: features and applications. Trends in Biotechnology, Vol.23, No.1, (January 2005), pp. 48-55.
Vignal A., Milan D., SanCristobal M., and Eggen A. (2002). A review on SNP and other types of molecular their use in animal genetics. Genet. Sel. Evol. 34: 275-305.
Wang, M.L., Barkley, N.A., Jenkins, T.M. (2009) Microsatellite Markers in Plants and Insects. Part I: Applications of Biotechnology. www.ent.uga.edu/pubs/jenkins_microsatellitei.pdf
Weising K, Nybom H, Wolff K, Kahl G (2005) DNA fingerprinting in plants – principles, methods, and applications, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Werner M, Sych M, Herbon N, Illig T, Konig IR, Wjst M. (2002). Large-scale determination of SNP allele frequencies in DNA pools using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Hum Mutat, 20:57–64.
Yang, W., Kang, X., Yang, Q., Lin, Y. and Fang, M.(2013). Review on the development of genotyping methods for assessing farm animal diversity. J Anim Sci Bio. 4, 2:1 – 6.
Zhao ZM, and Boerwinkle E. (2002). Neighboring-nucleotide effects on single nucleotide polymorphisms: a study of 2.6 million polymorphisms across the human genome. Genome Res, 12:1679–1686.