Cyanide and Macro-Nutrients Content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biomass Cultured in Cassava Mill Effluents
International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume 2, Issue 4, November 2017, Pages: 176-180
Received: Sep. 28, 2017; Accepted: Oct. 26, 2017; Published: Nov. 20, 2017
Views 1423      Downloads 88
Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Sunday Etim Bassey, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Elijah Ige Ohimain, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study investigated the cyanide and some macro nutrient contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass cultured in cassava mill effluents. The S. cerevisiae biomass produced was filtered and washed with distilled water and then re-filtered. The resultant sludge/biomass recovered were oven dried. The cyanide and macro nutrient contents were analyzed. The results of the macro nutrients were 331.67 mg/kg (Calcium), 679.30 mg/kg (Magnesium), 22075.30mg/kg (Potassium) and 215.04mg/kg (Sodium). The cyanide content was 0.055mg/100g, being lower than dietary cyanide limits for animal feed. The cyanide and macro nutrient suggests potential suitability of S. cerevisiae biomass cultured in cassava mill effluents for animal feed
Animal Feed, Biotechnology, Cyanide, Cassava Mill Effluents
To cite this article
Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Sunday Etim Bassey, Elijah Ige Ohimain, Cyanide and Macro-Nutrients Content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biomass Cultured in Cassava Mill Effluents, International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 176-180. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20170204.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Chinyere, G. C., Osuocha, K. U., Offor. C. E. and Ugbogu. A. E. (2016). Seasonal impact of cassava mill effluents (c m e) on dumpsites physicochemical parameters and selected enzyme activities in Isuikwuato area, Abia state, Nigeria. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 5 (3), 1777–1795.
Izah, S. C. and Ohimain E. I. (2015). Bioethanol production from cassava mill effluents supplemented with solid agricultural residues using bakers’ yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 3 (1), 47–54.
Ohimain, E. I., Silas-Olu, D. I. and Zipamoh, J. T. (2013). Biowastes generation by small scale cassava processing centres in Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety, 2 (1), 51–59.
Izah, S. C., Bassey, S. E. and Ohimain, E. I. (2017). Removal of Heavy Metals in Cassava Mill Effluents with Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Palm Wine. MOJ Toxicology, 3 (4), 00057. DOI: 10.15406/mojt.2017.03.00058.
Izah, S. C., Bassey, S. E. and Ohimain, E. I. (2017). Changes in the treatment of some physico-chemical properties of cassava mill effluents using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Toxic, 5 (4), 28; doi:10.3390/toxics5040028.
Izah, S. C., Bassey, S. E. and Ohimain, E. I. (2017). Assessment of some selected Heavy metals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass produced from Cassava mill effluents. EC Microbiology, 12 (5): 213-223.
Izah, S. C., Bassey, S. E. and Ohimain, E. I. (2017). Assessment of heavy metal in cassava mill effluent contaminated soil in a rural community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4 (5), 186-201.
Izah, S. C., Bassey, S. E. and Ohimain, E. I. (2017). Assessment of pollution load indices of heavy metals in cassava mill effluents contaminated soil: A case of small-scale cassava processing mill in a rural community of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Bioscience Methods, 8(1): 1-17.
Okudoh, V., Trois, C., Workneh, T. and Schmidt, S. (2014). The potential of cassava biomass and applicable technologies for sustainable biogas production in South Africa: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 1035 – 1052
Izah, S. C. (2016). Bioethanol production from cassava mill effluents supplemented with oil palm chaff, empty fruit bunch and cassava peels using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. M. Sc. thesis submitted to School of Post Graduate Studies, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria. 113pp.
Ehiagbonare, J. E., Enabulele, S. A., Babatunde, B. B. and Adjarhore, R. (2009). Effect of cassava effluents on Okada denizens. Scientific Research Essay, 4 (4), 310 – 313.
Adeyemo, O. K. (2005). Haematological and histopathological effects of cassava mill effluent in Clarias gariepinus. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 8 (3), 179-183.
Asogwa, C. N., Ezenwajiaku, F. O., Okolo, C. A., Ekeh, F. N., Nwibo, D. D. and Chukwuka, C. O. (2015). Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to graded concentrations of cassava waste water. Animal Research International, 12 (1), 2136–2142.
Ero, N. R. and Okponmwense, M. (Undated). The effect of cassava waste on the environment and its implication on the national economy.
Otunne, R. N. and Kinako, P. D. S. (Undated). Effects of cassava effluent on Egbema denizens: a case of Mmahu community in Egbema. International Journal of Research and Development, No volume, 1–5.
Orhue, E. R., Imasuen, E. E. and Okunima, D. E. (2014). Effect of Cassava mill effluent on some soil chemical properties and the growth of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6 (2), 320-325.
Abioye. O. P., Afolayan, E. O. and Aransiola, S. A. (2015). Treatment of Pharmaceutical Effluent by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii Isolated from Spoilt Water Melon. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, DOI: 10.3923/rjet.2015.
Okoduwa, S. I. R., Igiri, B., Udeh, C. B., Edenta, C. and Gauje, B. (2017). Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon. Toxics, 5, 6; doi:10.3390/toxics5010006.
Gunawan, S., Widjaja, T., Zullaikah, S., Ernawati, L., Istianah, N., Aparamarta, H. W. and Prasetyoko, D. (2015). Effect of fermenting cassava with Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and Rhizopus oryzae on the chemical composition of their flour. International Food Research Journal, 22 (3), 1280-1287.
Etsuyankpa, M. B., Gimba, C. E., Agbaji, E. B., Omoniyi, K. I., Ndamitso, M. M. and Mathew J. T. (2015). Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Fermentation on Selected Anti-Nutrients in the Products of Four Local Cassava Varieties from Niger State, Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 3 (3), 89-96.
Irtwange, S. V. and Achimba, O. (2009). Effect of the Duration of Fermentation on the Quality of Gari. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 1 (3), 150-154.
Babalola, O. O. (2014). Cyanide content of commercial gari from different areas of Ekiti state, Nigeria. World Journal of Nutrition and Health, 2 (4): 58–60.
Benson, H. J. (2002). Microbiological Applications: Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology/complete version, 5th edition. McGaraw-Hill, New York.
Pepper, I. L. and Gerba, C. P. (2004). Environmental microbiology. A laboratory manual. Second edition. Elsevier academic press.
Kurtzman, C. P. and Fell, J. W. (1998). The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study. 4th edition, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
APHA (American Public Health Association) (2006). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd ed.; American Public Health Association: Washington, DC, USA.
Iwuagwu, J. O. and Ugwuanyi, J. O. (2014). Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass. Journal of Waste Management,
Ellis, D., Davis, S., Alexiou, H., Handke, R. and Bartley, R, (2007). Descriptions of Medical Fungi. Second Edition. Printed in Adelaide by Nexus Print Solutions, Underdale, South Australia.
Bradbury, M. G. Egan, S. V. and Bradbury, J. H. (1999). Determination of all forms of cyanogens in cassava roots and cassava products using picrate paper kits. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 79, 593–601.
Egan, S. V., Yeoh, H. H. and Bradbury, J. H. (1998). Simple picrate paper kit for determination of the cyanogenic potential of cassava flour. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 76, 39–48.
Uhegbu, F. O., Akubugwo, E. I. and Iweala, E. E. J. (2012). Effect of Garri processing effluents [waste water] on the cyanide level of some root tubers commonly consumed in the South East of Nigeria. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 12 (5), 6748–6758.
Boonnop, K., Wanapat, M., Nontaso, N. and Wanapat, S. (2009). Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation. Journal of Agricultural and Science, 66, 616-620.
Okafor, P. N. and Nwabuko, C. U. (2003). Cyanide, nitrate and nitrite content of livestock feeds in Umuahia. Biokemistri, 14, 57–63.
Blackwood, I. and Duddy, G. (2009). Assessing stock feed additives and mineral supplements. Prime facts. Accessed 4th September, 2017.
Judson, G. J., McGregor, B. A. and Howse, A. M. (2011). Blood mineral, trace-element and vitamin concentrations in Huacaya alpacas and Merino sheep grazing the same pasture. Animal Production Science, 51, 873–880.
Okwu, D. E. (2005). Phytochemicals, Vitamins and Mineral contents of two Nigeria Medicinal Plants. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences, 1 (4):375-381.
Hassan, L. G., Muhammad, M. U., Umar, K. J. and Sokoto, A. M. (2008). Comparative study on the proximate content of the seeds and pulp of sugar apple (Annona squamosa). Nigerian Journal of Basic Applied Science, 16, 174-177.
Umar, K. J., Hassan, L. G., Usman, H. and Wasagu, R. S. U. (2013). Nutritional Composition of the Seeds of Wild Melon (Citrullus ecirrhosus). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16, 536-540.
Freer M, Dove H, Nolan JV (Eds) (2007) ‘Nutrient requirements of domesticated ruminants.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne).
Nkwocha, C. (2014). Proximate and micronutrient analyses of synsepalum dulcificum pulp. Scientific Research Journal, 2 (1), 71–74.
Wikipedia (2017). Sodium in Biology. Accessed September 26th, 2017.
Palacios, C. (2006). The Role of Nutrients in Bone Health, from A to Z. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:621–628.
Haas, E. M. (2011). Role of Potassium in Maintaining Health. Accessed September 26th, 2017.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-983-5186