Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness
American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2017, Pages: 21-30
Received: Feb. 6, 2017; Accepted: Feb. 27, 2017; Published: Mar. 21, 2017
Views 1508      Downloads 105
Authors
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Cathryn Dawn Nykvist, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Celine Lavelle, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Daniel Paul Przybylski, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Dianne Heather Vincent, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Dorothy Felger, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Douglas Jay Konersman, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Elizabeth Ann Feeney, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Jay Anthony Prague, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Joanne Lydia Starodub, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Karan Rasdan, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Karen Mie Strassman, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Leonid Soboleff, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Maire Anne Mayne, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Mary M. Keesee, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Padmanabha Narayana Pillai, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Pamela Clarkson Ansley, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Ronald David Schmitz, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Sharyn Marie Sodomora, Trivedi Global, Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Parthasarathi Panda, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (Energy of Consciousness) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The LC-MS analysis of the control and treated samples showed a very close retention time (Rt), indicated that the polarity of the phytoconstituents present in the root extract are same. The numbers of peaks observed in the total ion chromatograms were 28 and 29 in the control and treated samples, respectively. The change in the peak height% of the phytoconstituents in the treated sample was altered significantly within the range of -50.91% to 118.12% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the change in the peak area% of most of the phytoconstituents in the treated ashwagandha was significantly altered within the range of -54.95% to 66.95% compared with the control sample. An additional peak was appeared in the treated sample at Rt of 5.72 minutes, which was not found in the control sample. The LC-MS spectra indicated the presence of possible withanolides like -hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-withanolide F, withanolide A, withaferine A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, thiowithanolide, etc. in both the samples. The peak are percentage (%) was altered in the identified withanolides, but withanolide sulfoxide was increased significantly by 12.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. These results indicated that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have an impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract. This could be the probable cause of alteration in the peak height, peak area, and appearance of a new peak in the treated sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, ulcer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Keywords
Withania somnifera, Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, Biofield Energy Healers, Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment, The Trivedi Effect®, LC-MS, Retention time, Withanolides
To cite this article
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Cathryn Dawn Nykvist, Celine Lavelle, Daniel Paul Przybylski, Dianne Heather Vincent, Dorothy Felger, Douglas Jay Konersman, Elizabeth Ann Feeney, Jay Anthony Prague, Joanne Lydia Starodub, Karan Rasdan, Karen Mie Strassman, Leonid Soboleff, Maire Anne Mayne, Mary M. Keesee, Padmanabha Narayana Pillai, Pamela Clarkson Ansley, Ronald David Schmitz, Sharyn Marie Sodomora, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Parthasarathi Panda, Snehasis Jana, Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness, American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017, pp. 21-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ajqcms.20170101.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Kesarwani K, Gupta R (2013) Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 3: 253-266.
[2]
Singh N, Bhalla M, Jager P, Gilca M (2011) An overview on ashwagandha: A rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 8: 208-213.
[3]
Kulkarni SK, Dhir A (2008) Withania somnifera: An Indian ginseng. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32: 1093-1105.
[4]
Dar NJ, Hamid A, Ahmad M (2015) Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian ginseng. Cell Mol Life Sci 72: 4445-4460.
[5]
Mir BA, Khazir J, Mir NA, Hasan T-ul, Koul S (2012) Botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng): An Ayurvedic medicinal plant. Indian J Drugs Dis 1: 147-160.
[6]
Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S (2000) Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): A review. Altern Med Rev 5: 334-346.
[7]
Kumar V, Dey A, Hadimani MB, Marcović T, Emerald M (2015) Chemistry and pharmacology of Withania somnifera: An update. Tang (Humanitas Medicine) 5: e1.
[8]
Bolleddula J, Fitch W, Vareed SK, Nair MG (2012) Identification of metabolites in Withania sominfera fruits by liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 26: 1277-1290.
[9]
Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazón J (2009) Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine. Molecules 14: 2373-2393.
[10]
Singh A, Duggal S, Singh H, Singh J, Katekhaye S (2010) Withanolides: Phytoconstituents with significant pharmacological activities. Int J Green Pharm 4: 229-237.
[11]
Chen LX, He H, Qiu F (2011) Natural withanolides: An overview. Nat Prod Rep 28: 705-740.
[12]
Budhiraja RD, Krishan P, Sudhir S (2000) Biological activity of withanolides. J Sci Ind Res 59: 904-911.
[13]
Stenger VJ (1999) Bioenergetic fields. Sci Rev Alternative Med 3.
[14]
Rogers, M (1989) "Nursing: A Science of Unitary Human Beings." In J. P. Riehl-Sisca (ed.) Conceptual Models for Nursing Practice. 3rd edition. Norwark: Appleton & Lange.
[15]
Rosa L, Rosa E, Sarner L, Barrett S (1998) A close look at therapeutic touch. JAMA 279: 1005-1010.
[16]
Warber SL, Cornelio D, Straughn, J, Kile G (2004) Biofield energy healing from the inside. J Altern Complement Med 10: 1107-1113.
[17]
Nelson LA, Schwartz GE (2005) Human biofield and intention detection: Individual differences. J Altern Complement Med 11: 93-101.
[18]
Nemeth L (2008) Energy and biofield therapies in practice. Beginnings. Summer 28: 4-5.
[19]
Koithan M (2009) Introducing complementary and alternative therapies. J Nurse Pract 5: 18-20.
[20]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) The potential impact of biofield treatment on human brain tumor cells: A time-lapse video microscopy. J Integr Oncol 4: 141.
[21]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical characteristics and biotyping of Staphylococcus saprophyticus: An impact of biofield energy treatment. J Women’s Health Care 4: 271.
[22]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Shettigar H, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield energy treatment on Streptococcus group B: A postpartum pathogen. J Microb Biochem Technol 7: 269-273.
[23]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobials susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter baumannii - An experimental study. J Clin Diagn Res 3: 1.
[24]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on physical, thermal, and spectral properties of SFRE 199-1 mammalian cell culture medium. Advances in Biochemistry 3: 77-85.
[25]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Bacterial identification using 16S rDNA gene sequencing and antibiogram analysis on biofield treated Pseudomonas fluorescens. Clin Med Biochemistry Open Access 1: 101.
[26]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of antibiogram, genotype and phylogenetic analysis of biofield treated Nocardia otitidis. Biol Syst Open Access 4: 143.
[27]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and genotypic pattern of biofield treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Trop Dis 4: 181.
[28]
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Characterization of physical and structural properties of aluminum carbide powder: Impact of biofield treatment. J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng 4: 142.
[29]
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) The Potential impact of biofield energy treatment on the atomic and physical properties of antimony tin oxide nanopowder. American Journal of Optics and Photonics 3: 123-128.
[30]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of bio field treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of vanadium pentoxide powders. J Material Sci Eng S 11: 001.
[31]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic characterization of biofield treated salicylic acid and sparfloxacin. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 186.
[32]
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. Chem Sci J 6: 98.
[33]
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Potential impact of biofield treatment on atomic and physical characteristics of magnesium. Vitam Miner 3: 129.
[34]
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mishra RK, Jana S (2015) Biofield treatment: A potential strategy for modification of physical and thermal properties of gluten hydrolysate and ipomoea macroelements. J Nutr Food Sci 5: 414.
[35]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Spectroscopic characterization of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate and sodium nitrate after biofield treatment. J Chromatogr Sep Tech 6: 282.
[36]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Panda P, Jana S (2016) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of isotopic abundance of 13C, 2H, and 18O in biofield energy treated p-tertiary butylphenol (PTBP). American Journal of Chemical Engineering 4: 78-86.
[37]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Sethi KK, Jana S (2016) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based isotopic abundance ratio analysis of biofield energy treated methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin). American Journal of Physical Chemistry 5: 80-86.
[38]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Evaluation of biochemical marker - glutathione and DNA fingerprinting of biofield energy treated Oryza sativa. American Journal of BioScience 3: 243-248.
[39]
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2016) Molecular analysis of biofield treated eggplant and watermelon crops. Adv Crop Sci Tech 4: 208.
[40]
Chatterjee S, Srivastava S, Khalid A, Singh N, Sangwan RS, Sidhu OP, Roy R, Khetrapal CL, Tuli R (2010) Comprehensive metabolic fingerprinting of Withania somnifera leaf and root extracts. Phytochemistry 71: 1085-1094.
[41]
Chaurasiya ND, Uniyal GC, Lal P, Misra L, Sangwan NS, Tuli R, Sangwan RS (2008) Analysis of withanolides in root and leaf of Withania somnifera by HPLC with photodiode array and evaporative light scattering detection. Phytochem Anal 19: 148-154.
[42]
Musharraf SG, Ali A, Ali RA, Yousuf S, Rahman AU, Choudhary MI (2011) Analysis and development of structure-fragmentation relationships in withanolides using an electrospray ionization quadropole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry hybrid instrument. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25: 104-114.
[43]
Trivedi MK, Panda P, Sethi KK, Jana S (2016) Metabolite profiling of Withania somnifera roots hydroalcoholic extract using LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Chem Biodivers. Article (In press) doi:10.1002/cbdv.201600280
[44]
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/analysis/chromatography/gas.html.
[45]
https://www.agilent.com/cs/library/eseminars/Public/secrets%20of%20good%20peak%20shape%20in%20hplc.pdf.
[46]
Troy DB, Beringer P (2006) Instrumental method of analysis in Remington: The science and practice of pharmacy, 21st Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA, pp 633.
[47]
http://www.tainstruments.com/pdf/literature/AAN016_V1_U_StructFluids.pdf.
[48]
Martin AN, Patrick JS (2006) Martin's physical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences: Physical chemical and biopharmaceutical principles in the pharmaceutical sciences. Phila: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp. 533-560.
[49]
http://www.waters.com/webassets/cms/library/docs/wa20769.pdf.
[50]
Kaushal CK, Srivastava B (2010) A process of method development: A chromatographic approach. J Chem Pharm Res 2: 519-545.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186