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Distribution of Some Trace Metals in Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) Obtained in Oil Exploration Area of Ibeno, Nigeria
American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 7-16
Received: Mar. 30, 2020; Accepted: May 3, 2020; Published: Aug. 27, 2020
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Authors
Emmanuel Isaac Uwah, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria; International Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (ICEESR), University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Namnso Charles Udoaka, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Uduak Aniesua Essiett, Department of Botany and Ecological Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
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Abstract
Levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) in Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) obtained in Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were quantified using standard procedures. Soil samples as well as roots and leaves samples of the plant were collected from three locations (Okoroitak, Inua Eyet Ikot, Iwuo Okpom) in Ibeno, where intensive oil exploration activities are carried out. Samples were equally collected from Mbiabam Ibiono where there is no oil exploration, to serve as the controls. The results revealed that the metal levels in the soil ranged from < 0.06 mg/kg Cd to 8316.72±3.09 mg/kg Fe, those in the roots of the plant ranged from < 0.001 mg/kg Cd to 450.48±3.08 mg/kg Fe and those in the leaves, ranged from < 0.001mg/kg Cd to 1650.36±5.46 mg/kg Fe. The corresponding metal levels in the control samples were generally low compared to those of the study area. This could be attributed to the absence of oil exploration activities in the control area. Analysis of the metals pollution status of the plant using transfer factor (TF) revealed the trend: Cu > Pb > Zn >Cr > Mn > Ni > Cd > Fe. The levels of all the investigated metals in the analyzed V. amygdalina samples were lower than the WHO maximum permissible limits of the metals in plants and hence, the suitability of the analyzed V. amygdalina for human consumption in whatever form, at the time of the study.
Keywords
Quantification, Trace Metals, Contamination, Vernonia amygdalina, Oil Exploration, Ibeno
To cite this article
Emmanuel Isaac Uwah, Namnso Charles Udoaka, Uduak Aniesua Essiett, Distribution of Some Trace Metals in Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) Obtained in Oil Exploration Area of Ibeno, Nigeria, American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 7-16. doi: 10.11648/j.ajqcms.20200401.12
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Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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