Please enter verification code
Social Factors for Code-Switching-a Study of Malaysian-English Bilingual Speakers
International Journal of Language and Linguistics
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 122-127
Received: Apr. 19, 2016; Accepted: Apr. 29, 2016; Published: May 17, 2016
Views 10020      Downloads 422
Marzieh Hadei, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Vigneswari Christie Kumar, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Koik Shuh Jie, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study reported in this paper concentrates on the factors motivating code-switching within the social context of Malay-English bilingual speeches. Information for the survey was collected by means of transcribing different short video clips in Malay-English conversations. In the current study, the data were analysed within the sketch of Malik’s framework [22] to find the social factors and social dimensions of code-switching parts. The finding of the study revealed that ‘show identity’ is the most frequent reason for motivating the speakers to switch languages. Information gained from the study will help provide insight on why Malaysian-English bilingual speakers use code-switching in their conversations.
Code-Switching, Social Factors, Bilingual Speaker
To cite this article
Marzieh Hadei, Vigneswari Christie Kumar, Koik Shuh Jie, Social Factors for Code-Switching-a Study of Malaysian-English Bilingual Speakers, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 122-127. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20160403.15
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Anderson, T. K. (2006). Spanish-English bilinguals' attitudes toward code-switching: Proficiency, grammaticality and familiarity. The Pennsylvania State University.
Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language: University of Chicago Press.
Bokomba, E. (1989). Are there syntactic constraints in code-mixing? World Englishes, 8 (3), 277-292.
Choi, J. O. (1991). Korean–English code switching: Switch-alpha and linguistic constraints. Linguistics, 29 (5), 877-902.
Choy, W. F. (2011). Functions and reasons for code-switching on Facebook by utar English-Mandarin Chinese bilingual undergraduates, universiti tanku abdulrahman.
Clyne, M. (1991). Community Languages: The Australian experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D. (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
David, M. K. (2003). The Pakistani Community in Machang, Kelantan Language Shift. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 161, 47-53.
Di Pietro, R. (1977). Codeswitching as a Verbal Strategy among Bilinguals. In F. Eckman (Ed.), Current Themes in Linguistics: Bilingualism, Experiment Linguistics and Language Typologies. Washington DC: Hemisphere.
Diebold, A. R. (1964). Incipient bilingualism. In D. Hymes (Ed.), Language in Culture and Society (pp. 495-511). New York Harper & Row.
Gal, S. (1979). Language Shift: Social Determinants of Linguistic Change in Bilingual Austria. New York: Academic.
Gal, S. (1988). The political economy of code choice. In M. Heller (Ed.), Codeswitching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives (pp. 245-264). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hadei, M & AR Ramakrishna, R. (2016). English single content morphemes in Persian structure: Applying the Matrix Language Frame Model (MLF) and 4M Model. International Journal of Bilingualism. Published online before print February 22, 1-21.
Haja Mohideen, M. A. (2006). Let dramas reflect reality. The News Straits Times, 22.
Haugen, E. (1953). The Norwegian language in America: A study in bilingual behaviour. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jacobson, R. (2004). The Broadening Spectrum of a Malaysian Experience: From Informal Codemixing to Formal Codeswitching. Dewan Bahasa dan Pusta ka Kuala Lumpur.
Jariah Mohd, J. (2003). Code-switching for power wielding: Inter-gender discourse at the workplace. Multilingua, 22 (1).
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
Lodico, M. G., Spaulding, D. T., & Voegtle, K. H. (2006). METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: From Theory to Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mahootian, S. (2006). Code Switching and Mixing. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Language & Linguistics, Second Edition (Vol. 2, pp. 511-527). Oxford: Elsevier.
Malik, L. (1994). Socio-linguistics: A study of code-switching. New Delhi. Anmol Publications.
Marasigan, E. (1983). Code-switching and code-mixing in multilingual societies. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
McClure, E. (2001). Language and identity in the Assyrian Diaspora. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 31 (1), 107-120.
Muthusamy, P. (2009). Communicative functions and reasons for code switching: A Malaysian perspective. Retrieved on 5 August, 2011 from
Muysken, P. (2011). Codeswitching. In R. Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics (pp. 301-314). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Myers-Scotton, C. (2002). Contact linguistic: Bilingual encounters and grammatical outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Myers-Scotton, C. (2006). Multiple voices: An introduction to bilingualism: Wiley-Blackwell.
Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. England: Pearson.
Poplack, S. (1980). ‘Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: Towards a typology of codeswitching'. Linguistics 18, 581- 618.
Romaine, S. (1995).Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Weinreich, U. (1953 [1986]). Languages in contact. The Hague: Mouton.
Zentella, A. C. (1982). Code-switching and interaction among Puerto Rican children. In J. Amastae & L. Elias-Olivares (Eds.), Spanish in the United States: Sociolinguistic aspects. (pp. 354-385). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Zuraidah Mohd, D. (2003). Language-dialect code-switching: Kelantanese in a multilingual context. Multilingua, 22 (1).
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186