International Journal of Literature and Arts
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 22-28
Received: Apr. 16, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 29, 2015;
Published: May 12, 2015
Views 42509 Downloads 343
Jamal Subhi Ismail Nafi’, Department of English, Al-Quds University, East Jerusalem-Abu Dies Main Campus, Palestine
This paper examines the question whether Satan is really the hero of John Milton’s great epic poem Paradise Lost (1667). There are controversial debates over this issue, and most critics believe that, although Satan acts and speaks heroically, God is the real hero of the poem, not Satan. The paper adopts the analytical approach. The findings of the paper reveal that the central character Satan is a devil that acts for his own self-interests, and cannot do good, even to his followers, the fallen angels. The paper finally shows that, every impulse in Satan towards good has died out. The element of nobility that redeemed his character at the outset from absolute baseness has been killed. Hardly therefore shall we believe that Milton meant us to see in the fallen and ever falling archangel the hero of his poem. That position surely belongs to Adam.
Jamal Subhi Ismail Nafi’,
Milton’s Portrayal of Satan in Paradise Lost and the Notion of Heroism, International Journal of Literature and Arts.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 22-28.
Banisalamah, Ahmed, M. F. “Milton’s anti-monarchical stances and his poetical, phonetic, rhetorical, and theological crafts.” Canadian Social Science, 11 (1), 2015, pp. 30-34. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/css/article/view/5466
Gordon, Teskey. (2005). Blake’s The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Paradise Lost. New York: Norton, 2005, p. 389.
Shelley, Percy, B. A Defence of Poetry. Romanticism: An Anthology, ed. Duncan Wu. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998, pp. 944-956.
Hazlitt, William. On Shakespeare and Milton, from Lectures on the English Poet, 1818.
Fenton, Mary, C. "Hope, land ownership, and Milton's 'Paradise within'." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol.43.1, 2003. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do? Gale Document Number: GALE|A98312882
Slotkin, Joel. “Poetic justice: Divine punishment and Augustinian Chiaroscuro in Paradise Lost.” Milton Quarterly. Vol. 38. 2 (2004), 100-27. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/5466
Milton, John. Paradise Lost: A Poem in Twelve Books, ed. Thomas Newton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1749.
Prince, Frank, T. 1912-Paradise lost. Books I and II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Williamson, George. Milton & Others. London: Faber & Faber, 1965.
King, John, N. Milton and Religious Controversy: Satire and Polemic in Paradise Lost. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Murray, Patrick. Milton: The Modern Phase. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Press, January, 1967.
Anderson, Jarod, K. The decentralization of morality in Paradise Lost. Ohio University: Rocky Mountain Review, 2010, pp. 198-204.
Fuller, Edmund. John Milton. NY: Harper & Brothers, 1944.
Rudrum, Alan. A Critical Commentary on Milton’s Paradise Lost. London: Melbourn (etc.) Macmillan, 1966.
Broadbent, John. Paradise Lost: Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Shawcross, John, T. Milton, 1732-1801; the critical heritage. London, Boston: Routledge and K. Paul, 1972.
Daiches, David. A Critical History of English Literature: Shakespeare to Milton. Tamil Nadu, India: Allied Publishers, 1976.
Tillyard, Eutace, M. W. The Miltonic Setting: Past & Present. London: Chatto & Windus, 1938.
Lewis, Clive, S. A Preface to Paradise Lost. Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 2005.
Forsyth, Neil. The Satanic Epic. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 303.
Nicolson, Marjorie, H. A Reader’s Guide to John Milton. NY: Syracuse University Press, 1963.
SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Paradise Lost.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.sparknotes.com.n.p.