International Journal of Literature and Arts
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 176-185
Received: Dec. 21, 2015;
Accepted: Dec. 29, 2015;
Published: Jan. 11, 2016
Views 3704 Downloads 83
Ebtihal Abdelsalam Elshaikh, Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Education, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
The purpose of this paper is to show how psychological trauma resulted from conflicts such as immigration, wars, colonialism, and invasion; and even gender discrimination makes its way into postcolonial children’s literature. For example, some contemporary writers of children's literature depict the painful experience of young immigrants who are living under constant stress and tension. Others try to depict how the Middle East conflicts and turmoil affect children living under occupation. In all of these cases, children are highly at risk of psychological trauma. This paper is going to discuss two contemporary children’s novels which address the issues of immigration and war conflicts: Marina Budhos’ Ask Me no questions , and Cathryn Clinton’s A Stone in my Hand . They were chosen to reflect not only the variety of children’s literature available, but also the unique struggles faced by young female protagonists living in two different cultural and political environments. The common thread running through these two novels is the experience of emotional trauma that young protagonists go through. The study of such trauma is at the core of the discussion of both novels. The paper will show how the protagonists of the two novels suffer “a double or triple trauma for children, who may witness the forcible removal of the parent, suddenly lose their caregiver, and/or abruptly lose their familiar home environment” [McLeigh].
Ebtihal Abdelsalam Elshaikh,
Trauma of Immigration and War in Marina Budhos’ Ask Me No Questions , and Cathryn Clinton’s a Stone in My Hand , International Journal of Literature and Arts.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 176-185.
Altawil, M., D. Harrold, and Muthanna Samara. “Children of war in Palestine.” Children in War: The International Journal of Evacuee and War Child Studies, 1. 5 : 5-11. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.
Blake, Brandy Ball. "Watchmen: The Graphic Novel as Trauma Fiction." Image Text: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies. 5.1 . Dept of English, University of Florida. Web. 25 Feb 2014.
Budhos, Marina. Ask Me No Questions. New York: Atheneum Books, 2006. Print.
Capps, Randy et al. Paying the Price: The Impact of Immigration Raids on America’s Children. Washington: the National Council of La Raza, 2007. Print.
Caruth, Cathy. Trauma, Explorations in Memory. John Hopkins University Press, 1995. Print.
Clinton, Cathryn. A Stone in My Hand. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick, 2002. Print.
Gilligan, Chris. “Highly Vulnerable? Political Violence and the Social Construction of Traumatized Children.” Journal of Peace Research, 46.1 : 119-134. Web. 12 Feb 2014.
Gilman, Isaac. “Shutting the Window: the Loss of Innocence in Twentieth-Century Children's Literature.” The Looking Glass: New Perspectives on Children's Literature, 9. 3 . Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
Goodman, R. F., Danny Miller, and Judith A. Cohen. Ready to Remember: Jeremy’s Journey of Hope and Healing. Los Angeles, CA & Durham, NC: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, 2011. Web. 10 Jan. 2014
Gopalakrishnan, Ambika. Multicultural Children’s Literature: A Critical Issues Approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage publications, 2010. Print.
Goździak, Elżbieta M. “Healing the Children of War.” Encyclopedia of religious and spiritual development. Eds. E. Dowling, and W. Scarlett. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2006: 188-191. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
"Healing the Damage: Trauma and Immigrant Families in the Child Welfare System." The American Humane Association and the Annie E. Casey Foundation. Sep., 2010. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
Hughes, Jamie A. "'Who Watches the Watchmen?’ Ideology and 'Real World' Superheroes" The Journal of Popular Culture. 39.4 : 546–557. Web. Dec. 2013.
Kidd, Kenneth. “'A' is for Auschwitz: Psychoanalysis, Trauma Theory, and the Children’s Literature of Atrocity.” Children’s Literature. 33 : 21 – 49. Web. 3 Feb. 2014.
Lendman, Stephen. “Palestinian Children Under Occupation.” Stephen Lendman Blog, 2010. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
Makariev, D. W. and P. R. Shaver. "Attachment, Parental Incarceration, and Possibilities for Intervention." Attachment & Human Development. 12.4 : 311-331. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.
McLeigh, J. “How do immigration and customs enforcement [ICE] practices affect the mental health of children?” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 80.1 : 96-100. Web. 19 Jan. 2014.
Perry, Bruce D. “Effects of Traumatic Events on Children.” The Child Trauma Academy. 2003. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.
Potochnick, S. and K. Perreira, . "Depression and Anxiety among First-Generation Immigrant Latino Youth: Key Correlates and Implications for Future Research." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198. 7 : 470-477. Web. 12 Dec. 2013.
"Realism in Children’s Literature," CHILDREN’S LITERATURE REVIEW. 136. Jan. 2008: 46-98. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Robertson, Roland. “Glocalization: Time—Space and Homogeneity—Heterogeneity.” Global Modernities. Eds. Mike Featherstone, Scott Lash, and Roland Robertson. 36. : 25-44. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Sarat, Austin, et al. Trauma and Memory: Reading, Healing, and Making Law. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2008. Print.
Srour, Roney W. "Children Living Under a Multi-traumatic Environment: The Palestinian Case." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry Related Sciences. 42. 2 : 88–95. Web. 20 Feb 2014.
Tancke, Ulrike. “Original Traumas:” Narrating Migrant Identity in British Muslim Women’s writing.” Postcolonial Text, Vol 6, No 2 . Web. 14 Feb. 2014.