A Disaster Resilient Road: Effects of Fines on Density and Shear Strength of Sands
International Journal of Transportation Engineering and Technology
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 38-43
Received: Mar. 2, 2020;
Accepted: Mar. 16, 2020;
Published: Apr. 23, 2020
Views 309 Downloads 133
Md. Shahin, Department of Disaster Resilience and Engineering, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh
Md. Mehedi Hasan Khan, Local Government Engineering Department, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Niamul Bari, Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
During a massive flood or earthquake, the roads are mainly damaged due to the looseness of the subgrades. In recent times for any new constructions of roads and embankments the subgrades mainly constructed with the sand filling. It is difficult to achieve the desired degree of compaction beyond a certain limit. That’s why the bases (subgrades) become loose. This study aims to overcome the situation by increasing compaction and shear strength properties of sand filling. In this paper, an intensive laboratory investigation of fines with sands is investigated by a series of the proctor test and direct shear test. In this study, fines were mixed with the sand samples in a proportion of 10%, 20%, 30%, 45% and 55% to examine the effect on maximum dry density. Tests indicated that 45 to 55% fines with sands having different Fineness Modulus (FM), the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the sand can be increased up to 18 to 26% depending on FM. The results revealed that the density and shear strength (cohesion) of sand both increase significantly with the addition of fines with it up to a certain percentage. This increment in MDD and shear strength makes the bases (subgrades) stronger and stable. This result can be used in disaster resilient road or embankment construction and also for the structures having a shallow foundation.
Md. Mehedi Hasan Khan,
Md. Niamul Bari,
A Disaster Resilient Road: Effects of Fines on Density and Shear Strength of Sands, International Journal of Transportation Engineering and Technology.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2020, pp. 38-43.
S. Matsumura and F. Tatsuoka, ‘Effect of compaction conditions and fines content on cyclic undrained strength of saturated soils’, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 112, no. 2018, pp. 152–161, Sep. 2018.
S. Hussain, ‘Effect of Compaction Energy on Engineering Properties of Expansive Soil’, Civ. Eng. J., vol. 3, no. 8, p. 610, Sep. 2017.
S. A. N. M. Yusoff, I. Bakar, D. C. Wijeyesekera, A. Zainorabidin, M. Azmi, and H. Ramli, ‘The effects of different compaction energy on geotechnical properties of kaolin and laterite’, in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2017, vol. 1875, p. 030009.
S. A. A. Al-khafaji, ‘Effect of the Different Energy of Compaction on Subbse Course of Roads’, Saudi J. Eng. Technol., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 86–91, 2016.
P. K. Kolay and N. Wadiah, ‘Effect of Sand Content on Compaction Characteristics of Fine-grained Soil’, in National Civil Engineering Conference (NACEC) (NACEC), 2005, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 718–725.
V. T.-A. Phan, D.-H. Hsiao, and P. T.-L. Nguyen, ‘Effects of Fines Contents on Engineering Properties of Sand-Fines Mixtures’, Procedia Eng., vol. 142, pp. 213–220, 2016.
K. Deb, V. Sawant, and A. Kiran, ‘Effects of fines on compaction characteristics of poorly graded sands’, Int. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 299–304, Apr. 2010.
R. Ahmed, A. Nafees, U. T. Hafiz, and H. F. Sher, ‘EFFECT OF FINE ON COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDY SOILS’, Civil Engineering Department,The University of Lahore, Pakistan, 2014.
T. A. Ahmed and A. O. Kamel, ‘Improvement of Swelling Soil under Traffic Areas Using Dust Shield Polymer’, J. Eng. Innov. Technol., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 368–371, 2013.
V. N. Georgiannou and J. B. Burland, ‘The undrained behaviour of clayey sands in triaxial compression and extension’, Geotechnique, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 431–449, 1990.
T. D. Pitman, P. K. Robertson, and D. C. Sego, ‘Influence of fines on the collapse of loose sands’, Can. Geotech. J., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 728–739, Oct. 1994.
F. Amini and G. Z. Qi, ‘Liquefaction Testing of Stratified Silty Sands’, J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng., vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 208–217, Mar. 2000.
P.-H. Tsai, D.-H. Lee, G. T.-C. Kung, and C.-H. Hsu, ‘Effect of content and plasticity of fines on liquefaction behaviour of soils’, Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 95–106, Feb. 2010.
K. A. Kwa and D. W. Airey, ‘Effects of fines on liquefaction behaviour in well-graded materials’, Can. Geotech. J., vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1460–1471, Oct. 2017.
S. Thevanayagam, ‘Effect of Fines and Confining Stress on Undrained Shear Strength of Silty Sands’, J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng., vol. 125, no. 11, pp. 1024–1027, Nov. 1999.
S. Zlatovic and K. Ishihara, ‘On the influence of nonplastic fines on residual strength.’, in 1st Internationa Conference on Earthquake Geotechical Engrgineering, K. Ishihara, ed., A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 239, 1995.
V. C. Xenaki and G. A. Athanasopoulos, ‘Liquefaction resistance of sand–silt mixtures: an experimental investigation of the effect of fines’, Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 23, no. 2003, pp. 183–195, Apr. 2003.
S.-S. Park and Y.-S. Kim, ‘Liquefaction Resistance of Sands Containing Plastic Fines with Different Plasticity’, J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng., vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 825–830, May 2013.
E. Balaban, A. Smejda, and M. I. Onur, ‘An Experimental Study on Shear Strength Behavior of Soils Under Low Confining Pressure’, in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering, 2019, pp. 1–8.
M. A. Islam, F. F. Badhon, and M. Z. Abedin, ‘Effect of fine content on shear strength of sand’, in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering, 21-23 December 2016, CUET, Chittagong, Bangladesh Islam, Imam, Ali, Hoque, Rahman and Haque (eds.), 2016, no. February 2017, pp. 191–196.
T. ISLAM, ‘Effect of Fine Content on shear strength characteristics of sandy soil’, 2017.
K. J. Osinubi, A. O. Eberemu, A. O. Bello, and A. Adzegah, ‘Effect of Fines Content on the Engineering Properties of Reconstituted Lateritic Soils in Waste Containment Application’, Niger. J. Technol., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 277–287, 2012.
T. S. Y and L. C. Y, ‘Undrained response of mining sand and fines contents’, J. Civ. Struct. Eng., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 844–51, 2011.
D. Kim, M. Sagong, and Y. Lee, ‘Effects of fine aggregate content on the mechanical properties of the compacted decomposed granitic soils’, Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 189–196, Apr. 2005.
J. Chu and W. K. Leong, ‘Effect of fines on instability behaviour of loose sand’, Géotechnique, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 751–755, Dec. 2002.
S. C. Sebastian and P. K. C., ‘Variation in Coefficient of Consolidation and Modulus of Elasticity Values of Clayey Soil Randomly R’, Int. J. Sci. Technoledge, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 68–72, 2015.