Influence of Temperature Change on the Growth and Susceptibility of the Common House Mosquito, Culex pipiens in Egypt to Some Insecticides
International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 42-50
Received: Feb. 6, 2019; Accepted: Apr. 8, 2019; Published: May 6, 2019
Views 567      Downloads 59
Abdelbaset B. Zayed, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt
Azza A. Mostafa, Pesticides Department, Research Institute of Medical Entomology, Ministry of Health & Populations, Giza, Egypt
Walaa A. Moselhy, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt
Hanaa I. Mahmoud, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt
Shaimaa H. Hassan, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
By transmitting major human diseases, mosquito species represent a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health. Most vector control programmes aiming to control life-threatening mosquitoes rely on the use of chemical insecticides. For the reason that only a few insecticides are used for public health, maintaining the efficacy of control programmes mostly relies on resistance management strategies. Development of such strategies requires understanding the factors influencing resistance together with characterizing the mechanisms involved. In this context, the present study aims to update current knowledge about the effect of temperature on the mosquito Culex pipiens population response to chemical insecticides. The results demonstrated that alteration of the temperature significantly affects Cx. pipiens populations. High temperature (25, 30°C) resulted in high survival rate (90, 95% respectively); while at temperature 20°C the survival rate was 80%. Egg hatching percentage was 95% after 24 h, at temperature 30°C and 50% after 24h, 50% after 48h at 25°C; however at 20°C egg hatching percentage was 100% after 48 h. In case of Cx. pipiens larvae that were reared under various temperatures pupated on day 5, 9 and 12 at 30°C, 25°C and 20°C, respectively. At high temperature 30°C, females emerged before males. On the other hand resistance of all Cx. pipiens populations to the selected chemical insecticides decreased with raising temperature. The obtained results also showed that there was significant change in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione -S-transferase level in both larvae and adult due to temperature changing. These results indicate that temperature is an important parameter that must be considered during the application of chemical assays or control of Cx. pipiens populations.
Culex pipiens, Insecticide Resistance, Temperature, Biochemical Assay
To cite this article
Abdelbaset B. Zayed, Azza A. Mostafa, Walaa A. Moselhy, Hanaa I. Mahmoud, Shaimaa H. Hassan, Influence of Temperature Change on the Growth and Susceptibility of the Common House Mosquito, Culex pipiens in Egypt to Some Insecticides, International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2019, pp. 42-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ijee.20190402.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Roberts, D. R. and Andre, R. G. (1994): Insecticide resistance issues invector-borne disease control. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 50:21–34.
Ranson, H.;Guessan, R. N.; Lines, J.; Moiroux, N.; Nkuni, Z. and Corbel, V. (2011): Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control? Trends in parasitology. 27:91–98.
Clements A. N. (1992): The Biology of mosquitoes. Vol. I. Development, Nutrition and Reproduction. London: Chapman & Hall.
Delatte H.; Gimonneau G.; Triboire A. and Fontenille D. (2009): Influence of temperature on immature development, survival, longevity, fecundity, and gonotrophic cycles of Aedes albopictus, vector of chikungunya and dengue in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Medical Entomology, 46: 33–41.
Lounibos, L. P.; Suárez, S. and Menéndez, Z. (2002): Does temperature affect the outcome of larval competition between Aedes aegypti and Aedesalbopictus? Journal of Vector Ecology, 27: 86–95.
Barton, P. S. and Aberton, J. G. (2005): Larval development and autogeny in Ochlerotatuscamptorhynchus(Thomson) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Southern Victoria. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 126: 261–267.
Alves, S. B.; Alves, L. F. A.; Lopes, R. B.; Pereira, R. M. and Vieira, S. A. (2002): Potential of some Metarhiziumanisopliae isolates for control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae). J. Appl. Entomol. Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomology, 126: 504–509.
Swain, V.; Seth, R. K.; Raghavendra, K. and Mohanty, S. S. (2009): Impact of temperature on susceptible and resistant strains of Culex quinquefasciatusto synthetic pyrethroids. Acta Trop, 112: 303–307.
Miller, T. and Adams, M.(1982): Mode of action of pyrethroids. In: Coats JR, editor. Insecticide Mode of Action. Cambridge: Academic Press. p. 3–27.
Andersson, T.; and Forlin. L. (1992): Regulation of the cytochrome-P450 enzyme -system in fish. Aquatic Toxicol., 24: 1–19.
Devries, D. H. and Georghiou, G. P. (1979): Influence of temperature on the toxicity of insecticides to susceptible and resistant house-flies (Diptera, Muscidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 72: 48–50.
Boina, D. R.; Onagbola, E. O.; Salyani, M.; Stelinski, L. L. (2009): Influence of posttreatment temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against Diaphorinacitri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 102:685–91.
Chapman, H. C. and Barr, A. R. (1969): Techniques for successful colonization of many mosquito species. Mosquito News, 29(4).
Zayed, A. B.; Szumlas, D. E.; Hanafi A. H.; Fryauff, D. J.; Mostafa, A. A.; Allam, K. M. and Brogdon, W. G. (2006): Use of bioassay and microplate assay to detect and measure resistance in field populations of Culex pipiens from filariasis endemic areas of Egypt. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 22(3):473-482.
Gerberg, E. J.; Bernard, D. R. and Ward, R. A. (1994): Manual for mosquito rearing and experimental techniques; American Mosquito Control Association Bulletin, 5: 61-62.
Martha, W.; Kiarie-Makara; Philip, M.; Ngumbi and Dong-Kyu Lee. (2015):Effects of Temperature on the Growth and Development of Culex pipiens Complex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 10(6):01-10.
World Health Organization (2006): Pesticides and their applications, for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance. WHO/ CDS/ NTD/ WHOPES/ GCDPP/.1.
World Health Organization (1981): Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides. WHO/ VBC/ 81.807.
World Health Organization (1975): Manual on Practical Entomology in Malaria. Part II. WHO, Geneva.
Bradford, M. M. (I976.): A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analalytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.
Simpson, D. R.; Bulland, D. L. and Linquist, D. A. (1964): A semimicrotechnique for estimation of cholinesterase activity in boll weevils. Entomological Society of American, 57: 367- 371.
Habig, W. H.; Pabst, M. J. and Jakoby, W. B. (1974): Glutathione S-transferases the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. Journal of biological Chemistry, 249(22): 7130-7139.
Barrett, K. C.; Morgan, G. A.; Leech, N. L. and Gloeckner, G. W. (2012): IBM SPSS for introductory statistics: Use and interpretation. Routledge.
IPCC, (2013): Working Group 1 Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. In Climate change 2013: the Physical Science Basis.
Garske, T.; Ferguson, N.; Ghani, A. (2013): Estimating air temperature and its influence on malaria transmission across Africa. PLoS One, 8(2), e56487.
Lyons, C.; Coetzee, M. and Chown, S. (2013): Stable and fluctuating temperature effects on the development rate and survival of two malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus. Parasit Vectors, 6:104–112.
Siraj, A. S.; Santos-Vega, M.; Bouma, M. J.; Yadeta, D.; Carrascal, D. R. and Pascual, M. (2014): Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia. Science, 343(6175):1154–1158.
Christiansen-Jucht, C.; Parham, P. E.; Saddler, A.; Koella, J. C. and Basáñez, M. G. (2014): Temperature during larval development and adult maintenance influences the survival of Anopheles gambiae ss. Parasites & vectors, 7(1), 489.
Oda, T.; Uchida, K. and Mori, A. (1999): Effects of high temperature on the emergence and survival of adult Culex pipiensmolestus and Culex quinquefasciatus in Japan. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., 15: 153 - 156.
Soledad, F. M.; Cristina, M. M.; Fischer, S; Pablo, W. O. and Schweigmann, N. (2000): Effects of flooding and temperature on Aedes albifasciatus development time and larval density in two rain pools at Bueno Aires University City. Memórias do InstitutoOswaldo Cruz, 95 (6): 787 –793.
Mourya, T. D.; Yadav, P. and Mishra, A. C. (2004): Effects of temperature stress on immature stages and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to Chikungunya virus. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 7 (4): 346 – 350.
Bailey, S. F. and Geike, P. A. (1968): A study of the effect of water temperatures on rice field mosquito development. Proceedings of the California Mosquito Vector Control Association, 36: 53–61.
Reisen, W. K.; Milby, M. M. and Bock, M. E. (1984): The effects of immature stress on selected events in the life history of Culex tarsalis. Mosquito News, 44: 385–395.
Toth, S. J. and Sparks, T. C. (1988): Influence of treatment technique on the temperature toxicity relationships of cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin in the cabbage-looper (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 81: 115–118.
Alzogaray, R. A.; Picollo, M. I. andZerba, E. N. (1998): Independent and joint action of cis- and trans-permethrin in Triatomainfestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 37: 225–230.
Weston, D. P.; You, J.; Harwood, A. D. and Lydy, M. J. (2009): Whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation tools for pyrethroid insecticides: III. temperature manipulation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 28: 173–180.
Ma, Y. H.; Gao, Z. l.; Dang, Z. H.; Li, Y. F. and Pan, W. L. (2012): Effect of temperature on the toxicity of several insecticides to Apolyguslucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae). J. Pestic. Sci., 37: 135–139.
Patil, N. S.; Lole, K. S. and Deobagkar, D. N. (1996): Adaptive larval thermotolerance and induced cross‐tolerance to propoxur insecticide in mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Medical and veterinary entomology, 10(3): 277-282.
Horn, D. J. (1998): Temperature synergism in integrated pest management. Temperature sensitivity in insects and application in integrated pest management, 311: 125–39.
Polson, K. A.; Brogdon, W. G.; Rawlins, S. C. and Chadee, D. D. (2012): Impact of environmental temperatures on resistance to organophosphate insecticides in Aedes aegypti from Trinidad. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 32 (1): 1-8.
El- Kady, G. A. E.; Kamel, N. H.; Mosleh, Y. Y. and Bahght, I. M. (2008): Comparative toxicity of two bio-insecticides (Spinotoram and Vertemic) compared with methomyl against Culex pipiens and Anopheles multicolor. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(2): 198-205.
Feyereisen, R. (1995): Molecular biology of insecticide resistance. Toxicology Letter, 82: 83- 90.
Imasheva, A. G.; Loeschcke, V.; Zhivotovsky, L. A. and Lazebny, O. E. (1998): Stress temperatures and quantitative variation in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity, 81(3): 246.
Salgado, V. L.; Herman, M. D. and Narahashi, T. (1989): Interactions of the pyrethroid fenvalerate with nerve membrane sodium-channels - temperature- dependence and mechanism of depolarization. Neurotoxicology, 10: 1–14.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186